How to make Organic Jeevamrutha?
Microorganisms play a major role in Agriculture. They are responsible for making the soil fertile and increasing the productivity of the crops. These microorganisms are often increased in the soil by various methods to improve the life of a crop. One such method of increasing microorganisms is adding of Jeevamrutha to the soil which is encouraged in Organic Farming.
What is Jeevamrutha?
Jeevamrutha is derived from Sanskrit and is combined of two words: ‘Jeeva’ meaning living organism and ‘Amrutham’ meaning elixir of life which has the capability of prolonging life of any living organism. In our context, it is related to crop life. So basically, Jeevamrutha is the best organic fertilizer to improve the count of microorganisms.
Jeevamrutha is a traditional biopesticide or Organic manure which is prepared using cow dung and other ingredients. It can be prepared very easily as compared to other forms of manure like Compost or Vermicompost. It is an excellent source of Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium & many other micronutrients. It can be added into the soil to increase the microbial activities. In the initial 2 years it can be added to the soil as much as possible which acts as an organic fertilizer here. The more it is added, the better results are achieved.
The ideal environmental conditions for the microorganisms to grow well are:
- soil temperature are maintained between 24°C – 32°C
- humidity of about 88%
- continuous moisture in the soil
This environment is available only in monsoons so we can replicate it by Mulching which creates a microenvironment to increase the growth of microorganisms which in turn results in the formation of humus.
Jeevamrutha is very cost effective and can be used in place of expensive fertilizers & pesticides.
Types of Jeevamrutha
Jeevamrutha is of three types:
- The Liquid state Jeevamrutha
- The semi solid state Jeevamrutha
- The Dry state or Ghana Jeevamrutha
We will study the preparation of each type one by one.
Preparation of Liquid Jeevamrutha
The ingredients are mentioned for preparing liquid Jeevamrutha for 1 acre of land.
- 200 litres of Water
- 10 kg of Cow dung
- 10 litres of cow urine
- 1 kg Jaggery or any fruit pulp such as Papaya, Mango, Banana or Guava
- 2 kg flour of any pulses such as Green gram, Bengal gram, Black gram, Beans, or Redgram
- Little amount of fertile soil
The preparation is based on the following steps:
- Take a barrel which can hold more than 200l of water, and pour 200l of water in it and keep the barrel in a shade.
- Add 10kg of Cow dung on it and stir the mixture with the help of a stick or with your hand, if possible, in such a form that there should not be any lumps of the dung.
- Now add a handful of fertile soil and 10l of cow urine in the mixture and stir it again.
- Add the jaggery powder and the flour finally to the mixture and stir it well so that it is properly mixed without any lumps.
- Cover the barrel of mixture with any type of breathable bag, probably jute bag, so that air can escape through it.
- Keep this mixture stable for 2-3 days for fermentation (Aerobic fermentation). During this process, the poisonous gases like Ammonia, Methane, Carbon monoxide and Carbon dioxide are emitted through the breathable cover used.
- Stir the solution very well three times everyday and the mixture should never be exposed to direct sunlight or to rains.
After 2-3 days, fermentation will be in peak and can be best utilized as an organic fertilizer. It can now be directly applied on plants. This mixture works as an antifungal & antibacterial spray and is the best culture applied to the soils for increasing the microorganisms by multiple folds. The mixture should not be used beyond 7 days.
Preparation of Semi solid state
This type of Jeevamrutha is prepared with a large quantity of cow dung (100kg) and all other ingredients (1kg jaggery, 1kg pulses flour, handful of fertile soil) mixed with very little amount of water. Small balls of the mixture are made and kept in the sunlight for drying and then these are kept near the mouth of a sprinkler or a dripper. The microbes get activated whenever the waterfalls on these semi solid Jeevamrutha.
Preparation of Ghana Jeevamrutham
It is prepared when there is no water available. This can also be stored for later use in case of labour scarcity. It requires 200kg of cow dung which is spread uniformly on the ground and then 20 litres of water is added to it and mixed completely. This mixture is then converted to a heap and covered with a jute bag for 48 hours and is allowed to ferment. After the fermentation process, it is spread on the floor and is left for drying and when it dries completely, it is stored in jute bags in a room. This Jeevamrutha can be stored for 6 months.
200 kg of Ghana Jeevamrutham is used for 1 acre of land, during the sowing period with at least 2 hands of it per seed. During the flowering period, 50kg of it is added in between two crop lines on the soil per acre of land, for amazing yields.
Application of Jeevamrutha
Jeevamrutha can be used in the field in the following 3 ways:
- Irrigation water canal
- Drip Irrigation
Jeevamrutha should be prepared with not less than 200 litres of water for 1 acre of land and filter the mixture before using it through sprinklers or drip because it may get clogged. It can be poured to the roots of the crops, and for a fruit tree, it should be added a little outside the shadow of the tree. Jeevamrutha can be sprayed to the crops or fruit plants as a growth hormone, or antifungal & antibacterial spray.
For the paddy crops, it can be applied along with irrigation. It can be applied to other varieties of plants either directly on the roots or in the rows in the field.
Jeevamrutha can also be applied by hand when there is a scarcity of sprayer. Jeevamrutha (50 ml) is added in between two main vegetable plants on the soil surface. This process is repeated up to thrice every month, till 4 continuous months until the harvest is complete.
The first spray of Jeevamrutha is applied just after one month of sowing the seeds in the field. 5 litres of filtered Jeevamrutha is mixed with 100l of water and this mixture is stirred well and sprayed on 1 acre of vegetable crops. During the summer season, it is recommended to apply in the early morning or evenings and it can be applied at any time during the winters.
The second spray is done after 21 days of the first spray. The mixture is prepared by adding 150 litres of water to 10 litres of filtered Jeevamrutha.
The third spray is done after 21 days of the second spray. Here the mixture is prepared by adding 200 litres of water in 20 litres of filtered Jeevamrutha.
The fourth spray is done when the fruits start to become visible. Here the mixture is prepared with 200 litres of water and 6 litres of sour buttermilk.
Benefits of Jeevamrutha
Following are some of the benefits of Jeevamrutha:
- It is a natural, low budget, fermented, microbial mixture
- It enhances the growth of microorganisms and enriches the soil
- It improves mineralization of the soil
- It has no side effects on the soil and the production
- It enhances the growth of plants
- It provides good yield
- It provides resistance against pests & diseases
- It promotes organic carbon in the soil
- It can be prepared very easily in a very less time
- It’s completely organic
- Jaggery provides carbohydrates and pulse flour provides the required proteins to the plants. Bacteria is multiplied into two in every 20 minutes
Jeevamrutha is the best fertilizer for organic farming because organic farmers cannot use chemical fertilizers in their field. It provides the necessary nutrients and minerals to the plants for their growth to produce good yields. Jeevamrutha is very beneficial to the farmers as it is a very cost effective and traditional fertilizer to be used.