Commercial cultivation of pigeon pea
Arhar is an important legume plant crop in India, which is also known by another name Toor Dal. It is a major plant type of pulse and is grown on a large scale in India. This crop is an important part of Indian food culture and is used as a pulse throughout the country. Pigeon pea is an important protein source and is an important food in Indian life. Toor dal and tuari oil are made from it.
Pigeon pea is cultivated in different parts of India, but it is mainly grown in Central India, North India, and South India. Arhar dal is rich in nutrition, which includes proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. It is also beneficial for heart health.
Suitable season for pigeon pea cultivation
The suitable season for the cultivation of pigeon pea (tur dal) may vary in different regions of India, as it can be cultivated in both Rabi and Kharif seasons, but is mainly grown in the Rabi season.
Cultivation of Pigeon pea in Rabi season:
In Rabi season, pigeon pea is cultivated in the months of November to December and its major growth and completion occurs between February and March. This time requires calm and pleasant weather in which the temperature is cool and the crop likes the cold.
Cultivation of Pigeon pea in Kharif season:
In Kharif season, Pigeon pea is cultivated during the season from June to October. This time is hot and the climate is cold, and is not considered good for its cultivation because high temperatures are not good for the pigeon pea crop.
Climate and soil requirement for pigeon pea
Type of soil: Sandy loam or loamy soil is considered ideal for the cultivation of pigeon pea.
Soil pH: Pigeon pea prefers slightly acidic to neutral soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0. Soil pH affects the availability of nutrients for plants, and maintaining the correct pH level is important for healthy growth.
Organic matter: Adding organic matter like well-rotted manure or cow dung to the soil before sowing pigeon pea can improve the fertility and water-holding capacity of the soil.
Drainage: Proper drainage is essential to prevent waterlogging, as pigeon pea does not tolerate waterlogged conditions.
Specific climatic conditions are required for optimal growth and development. The major climatic requirements for pigeon pea cultivation are as follows:
Temperature: Pigeon pea thrives in warm to hot temperatures. The optimum temperature range for its growth is between 25°C to 35°.
Soil: Pigeon pea prefers well-drained, sandy or loamy soil. It can tolerate soils with a pH range of 5.0 to 7.5.
Suitable varieties of pigeon pea: Many varieties of pigeon pea are grown in India, which are adapted to different climatic conditions and soil types. Go through your nearest research center and develop variety for better variety and suitability of your land, it will be more beneficial for you economically and for yield.
Seed rates for pigeon pea: The recommended seed rate for pigeon pea may vary depending on several factors, including the specific pigeon pea variety, planting method, and local conditions.
Direct Seeding (Broadcast): The recommended seed rate for broadcasting pigeon pea seeds is about 15 to 20 kg seeds per hectare (6 to 8 kg per acre). Broadcasting involves spreading the seeds evenly over the field surface without rows or furrows.
Row sowing (row planting): When using row planting or row sowing, the seed rate can be lower, usually about 10 to 15 kg of seeds per hectare (4 to 6 kg per acre).
Proper Spacing for Pigeon Peas: If you are using row planting, maintain a row to row distance of about 60-75 cm (24-30 inches) and within rows about 10-15 cm (4-6 inches) Sow seeds at an interval of. It is important to adapt the seed rate to actual conditions, including soil type, climate and the specific pigeon pea variety being sown.
Manure and fertilizer requirement for pigeon pea crop: Manure and fertilizer requirements for pigeon pea cultivation depend on various factors including soil nutrient level, soil type and. Proper nutrient management is essential to maximize crop yield and quality. Here are some general guidelines for the use of manure and fertilizer when growing pigeon pea.
Soil Test: Before applying any fertilizer or compost, it is advisable to conduct a soil test to determine the nutrient content and pH of your soil. This will help you make informed decisions about nutrient management.
Organic matter (compost): Incorporating well-rotted organic matter (manure, farmyard manure, or green manure) into the soil can improve soil structure, water retention, and nutrient availability. Add organic matter at the rate of 5 tonnes per hectare depending on the fertility of the soil.
Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K): Pigeon pea generally benefits from phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Use phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers as needed based on soil test results. Common sources include diammonium phosphate (DAP) for phosphorus and muriate of potash (MOP) for potassium.
Nitrogen (N): Pigeon pea is a legume and has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen with the help of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) living in its root nodules. Therefore, pigeon pea often requires less nitrogen fertilizer than non-legume crops. However, in some cases, small amounts of nitrogen (for example, 20–30 kg/ha) may be applied at sowing to support initial growth, especially in nitrogen deficient soils.
Micronutrients: If your soil test indicates deficiency of micronutrients like iron, zinc or boron, appropriate micronutrient fertilizers should be supplied as per the recommended rates.
Timing of fertilizer application: Phosphorus and potash fertilizers can be applied as basal application at the time of sowing or before planting. If necessary, estrogen can be applied as a top-dressing during early growth stages.
Irrigation requirement for pigeon pea crop: Irrigation requirements for pigeon pea depend on various factors including local climate, soil type, rainfall pattern and specific growth stage of the crop. Pigeon pea is a drought-tolerant crop, but providing adequate and timely irrigation can significantly improve yields and overall crop health.
Irrigation is essential for successful cultivation of pigeon pea in areas with insufficient rainfall. Initial irrigation: Provide adequate amount of water at the time of sowing to ensure good germination and early establishment of seeds.
Critical stage: Pigeon pea is sensitive to moisture during flowering and pod formation stage. Adequate moisture is important to prevent yield loss during these periods. Irrigate when the moisture content in the soil reaches the lower critical limit.
Frequency: The frequency of irrigation will depend on soil type, climate and local practices. Generally, pigeon pea is irrigated every 7 to 10 days during dry periods.
Depth: Apply enough water to moisten the soil in the root zone, which is usually in the top 60–90 cm (2–3 ft) of soil. Make sure water penetrates deep into the root zone to encourage intensive root growth.
Avoid waterlogging: While pigeon pea requires moisture, it is essential to avoid waterlogging, as it can damage the roots and reduce crop yield. Ensure proper drainage in the field.
Mulching: Applying organic mulch (for example, straw or crop residues) can help conserve soil moisture, reduce weed competition, and reduce evaporation. Mulching is especially beneficial in arid or semi-arid regions.
Pigeon pea diseases and pest control:
To control diseases and pests in pigeon pea cultivation, it is important to adopt good agricultural practices, such as using resistant varieties, following proper crop rotation and using proper fertilization and irrigation practices. Insecticides can also be used to control pests, but it is important to use them judiciously and follow recommended application rates and intervals. , You can get advice from our Agri Doctor by sending a photo through generate ticket in Agrisuper App.
Yield in pigeon pea cultivation: Yield in pigeon pea cultivation can vary significantly depending on various factors, including the specific variety of pigeon pea, climate and weather conditions, soil quality, agricultural practices, and pest and disease management. On an average, the yield of pigeon pea can range between 1,500 to 2,000 kg per hectare. However, it is important to note that high yields can be achieved under favorable conditions and with good agricultural practices.