High Yield Wheat Planting Care, Harvesting & Storage
Wheat is a staple food in India, and forms the basis of many traditional Indian dishes, such as roti, chapatti, naan and various types of bread. It is the primary source of carbohydrates. Wheat is a good source of essential nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber and various vitamins and minerals.
India’s population is large and growing, making food security a serious concern. Wheat, being a major crop, contributes significantly to meeting the dietary needs of the population.
Wheat cultivation has an important contribution in the agricultural economy of India. It provides employment to millions of farmers and labourers, especially in the northern and north-western regions of the country. Wheat cultivation generates income and supports livelihoods for rural communities.
Weather requirement for wheat cultivation
Wheat cultivation in India requires specific weather and climatic conditions for successful cultivation. The major weather requirements for wheat cultivation in India are as follows:
Temperature: Wheat is a cool season crop and requires relatively cool temperatures for most of its growth period. The following temperature ranges are ideal:
Germination: 10°C to 15°C
Vegetative growth: 15°C to 20°C
Grain Filling: 20°C to 25°C
Wheat can grow in a variety of soils but prefers well-drained loamy soils with good fertility. Soil pH should be between 6.0 to 7.5 for optimal growth. Proper soil preparation and nutrient management is essential for high yields.
Improved varieties of wheat:
Many varieties of wheat are grown in India, adapted to different climatic conditions and soil types. Go through your nearest research center and develop variety for better variety and suitability of your land, it will be more beneficial for you economically and for yield.
Seed rate for wheat cultivation
Seed rates for wheat cultivation can vary depending on several factors, including wheat variety, planting method, local growing conditions, and desired plant population. Typically, wheat seed rates are measured in kilograms of seed per hectare (kg/hectare).
Drilling method: When using traditional drilling methods, where wheat seeds are placed in rows, the recommended seed rate is usually in the range of 100 to 125 kg/hectare.
No-till method: In conservation or no-till farming systems, where seeds are sown directly into tilled soil, slightly higher seeding rates may be used. Seed rates of 125 to 150 kg/ha are common in such systems to compensate for potential losses due to poor seed-soil contact.
Planting time: Planting wheat early in the optimal time frame reduces seeding rates, as plants have more time to tiller and compensate for lower initial plant populations.
Proper spacing in wheat for cultivation: Proper spacing is important to optimize resource use, maximize yields and ensure healthy crop growth.
Row Spacing: Normal row spacing ranges from 15 cm (6 inches) to 25 cm (10 inches). Narrow row spacing allows for a greater number of plants per unit area and potentially higher yields.
Plant spacing within rows: Generally, wheat is sown keeping in mind the target plant population, which may vary depending on factors such as variety, soil fertility and climate.
Tiller development: Adequate spacing can promote tillering, increasing the number of grain-yielding spikes per plant and ultimately leading to higher yields. However, overcrowding can inhibit tiller growth.
Sowing time in wheat farming
Wheat in India is mainly grown as a Rabi (winter) crop, and the sowing time of wheat is usually during the winter months. The exact time of sowing wheat may vary slightly depending on the region and local climatic conditions.
North-Western and Northern regions (Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar): Wheat sowing in these regions usually starts in late October and may extend till early December.
Central and Western India (Gujarat, Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh): In these regions, wheat sowing usually starts in November and continues till December.
Eastern India (Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand and parts of Odisha): Wheat sowing in eastern India generally starts in November and continues till December.
Southern India (Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu): Wheat is not commonly grown in southern India due to the relatively hot climate. However, in some cooler and higher altitude areas, wheat can be sown during the winter months starting in November.
Need of manure and fertilizer in wheat cultivation
To obtain high yields in wheat cultivation, proper nutrient management through the use of manure and fertilizers is essential.
Before applying any fertilizer or compost, it is important to test the soil to assess its nutrient status. You can go for Agrisuper soil test for live soil test for macro nutrients.
Organic fertilizers: Organic fertilizers, such as well-rotted cow manure (FYM) or compost, can improve soil structure, water-holding capacity and nutrient content. Recommended application rates can vary but are often in the range of 5 to 10 tonnes per hectare depending on soil conditions.
Nitrogen (N): Nitrogen is an important nutrient for wheat growth and yield. Recommended nitrogen application rates for wheat cultivation vary, but are generally in the range of 120 to 150 kg/ha. Nitrogen can be applied in several divided doses, with a portion applied at the time of sowing and additional doses during the growth stages of the crop.
Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K): Phosphorus and potassium are essential nutrients for the growth of wheat. Recommended application rates for phosphorus and potassium depend on soil test results, but are typically in the range of 40 to 60 kg/ha for phosphorus (P2O5) and 30 to 40 kg/ha for potassium (K2O). . These nutrients are often added at or before sowing.
Sulfur (S): Sulfur is another important nutrient for wheat. Depending on sulfur levels in the soil, additional sulfur may be needed. Recommended application rates for sulfur can range from 20 to 40 kg/hectare.
Micronutrients: In some cases, micronutrients such as zinc, iron and manganese may be required, especially in soils with known
Irrigation requirement for wheat cultivation
Wheat in India is generally grown as a Rabi (winter) crop, and its water requirements vary across its growth stages.
Soil Type: Soil type plays an important role in determining irrigation requirements. Sandy soils dry out quickly and may require more frequent irrigation, while clay soils retain moisture better but may require less frequent watering. Loamy soil is generally considered ideal for wheat cultivation.
Tillering stage: During early growth, wheat plants develop tillers. Adequate moisture during this stage is essential for the formation of a healthy crop canopy. If necessary, one or two irrigations can be done.
Attachment and stem elongation: As wheat plants transition to the stem elongation stage, which is critical for grain development, they require consistent moisture. Irrigation can be done as needed to maintain soil moisture.
Germination and Flowering: Wheat plants enter the germination and flowering stage, where grain heads are formed. Adequate moisture during this period is important for grain growth and filling. Irrigation can be done to ensure adequate moisture in the soil.
Grain Filling: Water demand is high during grain filling. Wheat plants require consistent moisture to aid grain growth. Irrigation can be planned to meet the water requirements of the crop.
Irrigation Methods: Common irrigation methods used in wheat cultivation include surface irrigation (furrow or flood irrigation), drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. For more production and less disease, you should adopt micro irrigation.
Wheat diseases and pest control:
To control diseases and pests in wheat cultivation, it is important to adopt good agricultural practices, such as using resistant varieties, following proper crop rotation and using proper fertilization and irrigation practices. Insecticides can also be used to control pests, but it is important to use them judiciously and follow recommended application rates and intervals. , You can get advice from our Agri Doctor by sending a photo through generate ticket in Agrisuper App.
Yield in wheat farming
The yield per hectare (ha) of wheat cultivated can vary widely depending on a number of factors, including geographical location, climate, soil quality, farming methods, and the specific wheat variety used. The national average wheat yield in India was about 3.5 to 4.0 metric tonnes per hectare (MT/hectare).
High-yielding varieties: Farmers using high-yielding wheat varieties, proper irrigation, balanced fertilizers and good agricultural practices can achieve yields much higher than the national average. Some farmers have yielded 4 to 5 metric tons/hectare or more under optimal conditions.
Storage in wheat cultivation:
Proper storage of harvested wheat is essential to maintain its quality and prevent it from spoiling due to pests, moisture and environmental conditions. Here are some general practices and considerations for wheat storage:
Storage Structures: Wheat can be stored in a variety of structures including traditional granaries, modern silos, and warehouses. The choice of storage structure depends on the scale of farming, the resources available and the need to protect the wheat from moisture and pests.
Moisture Control: Wheat should be stored at moisture levels below the safe storage moisture content, which is typically around 12% to 14% for wheat. High moisture levels can lead to mold growth and insect infestation. Farmers often use fans or aeration systems to reduce moisture levels and maintain uniform conditions within storage structures.
Pest Control: Pests like weevils and beetles can cause damage to stored wheat. Farmers can use safe and approved pesticides, hermetic storage methods (such as sealed containers), or diatomaceous earth to prevent infection.
Temperature control: Maintaining a relatively cool and consistent temperature within the storage structure can help maintain the quality of wheat. Temperature fluctuations can cause condensation and mold growth.
Rodent control: Rodents can also cause damage to stored wheat. Farmers should implement rodent control measures, such as traps or bait stations, to prevent infestations.
Proper handling: Careful handling of wheat during harvesting and storage is essential to reduce damage and maintain quality. It is important to use appropriate tools and techniques.