Commercial Farming of mango in India
Mango is a major fruit in India. About 43.4 percent of the world’s total mango production is produced in India. Mango is cultivated in almost all areas of the country but on a commercial scale it is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh (37.5 percent) has the highest area under mango in India. Ripe fruits of mango are highly nutritious, tasty and beneficial. Apart from fresh use, many preservatives are made from mango fruits. Raw fruits are used for pickles, amchur, etc., while ripe fruits are used to make juice, syrup, squash, beverages and amavat (mangoleather) etc.
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Mango has been called the king of fruits due to its aroma, flavor, size, taste and properties. Due to its distinctive properties of mango it has been successful in making a place in the small and big gardens of the country. Mango cultivation is mostly successful up to a height of 500 – 600 m above sea level apart from this it can also be planted up to an altitude of 2000 m.
Dry weather is good at the time of fruiting & flowering. Light rain is useful after fruit formation but flowers fall due to excessive rain, strong storm and cyclone. Even sometimes the entire crop is destroyed.
Land and climate
Mango can be cultivated in almost all types of land. This is the reason that mango orchards are found in both less and more fertile land. This is the specialty of mango that it is possible to plant it in almost every type of land, sandy, sloping, rocky, alkaline and waterlogged land is not favorable for planting its gardens.
For successful cultivation of mango, loamy, alluvial, well drained and deep land, whose pH value is between 5.5 to 7.5 is suitable. Deep loamy soil with water holding capacity is suitable for successful mango farming .
More than 1000 varieties of mango are prevalent in the country. But from the commercial point of view only 40-50 varieties are grown in different areas.
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Jardalu:- It is a commercial and early variety of Jharkhand and Bihar region. Its tree is spreading and leaves are light green in color. The size of its fruits is large and attractive dark yellow. 140-160 kg fruit can be obtained from a fully grown tree.
Bombay Green is an early maturing variety whose fruits mature in the third week of May. Trees of this variety are more branched and leaves are thinner. Fruits are medium in size, green to light yellow in color when ripe, fruit has high pulp content and taste and sweetness are very good. In the year of fruiting, 150-175 kg of fruit can be obtained from its fully grown tree.
Him Sagar: Plants of this variety are more vigorous and moderately branched ripening till mid-June. Plant growth medium and fruit harmony is very good. The fruit is green in color and oval in shape. The fruits of this variety are sweet, tasty and more pulpy. One tree of Himsagar variety can yield 140-180 kg of fruit.
Dussehri : It is a commercial variety of North India which has also been found suitable for Chotanagpur region. In this region, the size of its fruits is medium, small, oval and yellow in color when ripe as compared to Lucknow. Fruit storage capacity is good.
White Maldah:- This variety is also known as Langda. It is a mid-ripening variety whose fruits are ready by mid-June.
Plants of this variety are sprawling and area development is dense. The size of the fruits is medium large, when ripe, the color is light yellow and the amount of pulp is high in them. About 150-200 kg of fruit can be obtained from a fully grown tree.
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Mallika– It is a hybrid variety whose fruits are very large (average weight 600 g). The kernels are thinner and more pulpy, sweet and delicious. Its fruits turn attractive yellow when ripe. Its fruit storage capacity is also high.
It is a very good late maturing variety found for this region. This variety is very suitable for the cubic production method of feeding and processing, due to which about 200-250 q/ha yield can be obtained.
Amrapali:– This is a sweet variety whose trees are dwarf. The fruits of Amrapali trees are obtained relatively quickly and regularly, but the size of the fruits is small and large. It is a late maturing variety whose fruits ripen in late June. This variety is very suitable for intensive production method, due to which about 200-250 q/ha yield can be obtained.
Chausa:– It is a late maturing variety whose fruits are ready in the month of June-July. The tree is large in size and medium branched. Its medium sized fruits are oval and tasty. 140-180 kg fruit can be obtained from a fully grown tree.
Few varieties of Mangos described as below as per their region:
Bihar– Langra (Kapuri), Bombay, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Sukul, Bathua and Ranipasand etc. are prominent.
Goa – Farnandin and Mankurad are prominent
Uttar Pradesh – Dussehri, Bombay Green, Gourjeet, Langra, Fajri, Safeda Lucknow, Samarbhisht Chausa and Rataul etc. are prominent.
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Haryana – Saroli (Bombay Green), Dussehri, Langra and Amrapali etc. are prominent.
Gujarat – Afus, Kesar, Dasheri, Langdo, Rajapuri, Vashibadami, Totapuri, Sardar, Dadmyo, Neelam, Amrapali, Sonpari, Nilphonso and Ratna etc. are prominent.
Maharashtra – Alphonso, Kesar, Mankurad, Malgoa and Parry etc. are prominent.
Orissa – Bainganpally, Langra, Neelam and Subarnarekha etc. are prominent.
Karnataka – Alphonso, Bangalore, Malgoa, Neelam and Parry are prominent.
Kerala – Mundappa, Olure and Parry etc. are prominent.
Andhra Pradesh – Bainganpally, Bangalore, Cherukurasam, Himayuddin and Subarnarekha etc. are prominent.
Madhya Pradesh – Alphonso, Bombay, Langra, Dussehri and Sundarja etc. are prominent.
Punjab – Dussehri, Langra and Samarbahisht Chausa etc. are prominent.
Bengal – Bombay, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Langda Jardalu and Ranipasand etc. are prominent.
Planting and Maintenance
Mango plants should be planted at a distance of 10x10m. However today’s high-tech horticulture and irrigation with drip system is suitable for increasing the number of plants per hectare. We care calling this high density mango plantation. Before planting saplings make sure the place of planting seedlings by drawing the field in the field. After that digging pits of size 90x90x90 cm and spread the soil.
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In the month of June as soon as the rains begin 2-3 baskets of decomposed cow dung (compost) 2 kg Karanj / Neem cake 1 kg single super phosphate and 100 g Radar (10 percent dust) or 20 grams of Furadan 3G / Thimet 10 G should be mixed well in the soil of the top surface of the field and the pit should be filled.
After two-three rains when the soil gets buried, then with the help of a scabbard a plant should be planted. After planting the plant press the surrounding soil well and make a way and put 2-3 buckets (25-30 liters) of water in it. In case of no rain watering should be continued till the plant is fully established.
After planting mango saplings, proper care is required for the first 3-4 years. Proper irrigation should be arranged for protection from frost, especially in winter and summer. In the first 3-4 years, unwanted branches of the plants should be removed and given a definite shape.
The branches up to a height of about 80 cm from the ground should be removed. So that proper development of main stem can be done. Thereafter 3-4 main branches should be allowed to develop. On these branches come the second and third branches.
Due to which the shape of the tree is shapely, the structure is strong and the fruit is good. In large plants, especially in which the area is dense, the middle branches, which do not bear fruit, should be cut and removed.
Dry diseased or caught branches should be cut from time to time. After plucking of fruits, cutting 2-3 cm twig along with Manjar gives healthy branches and gives good fruit for next year. In the initial stage proper care of the plants, weeding and protection from insects and diseases leads to good growth of plants.
Manures and fertilizers for Mango Plantation:
For the first 2-3 years mango plants should be given 30 kg decomposed cow dung, 2 kg karanj cake, 200 g urea, 15 g single super phosphate and 150 g murate of potash per plant / year. After that along with the growth of the plant the amount of rotted manure should be increased. In this way 10 kg of cow dung, 150 g of karanj cake, 150 g of urea, 100 g of SI, 50 g of murate of potash should be increased per plant per year.
After about 15 years, 80-100 kg of cow dung, 3-4 kg of karanj cake, 2 kg of urea, 1.5 kg of sucrose and 0.8 kg of muriate of potash per plant will be applied after about 15 years. If there is no rain after manuring then irrigation is necessaryIn gardens where symptoms of zinc deficiency are visible, giving 150-200 g of zinc sulphate per tree along with other fertilizers in the month of September has been found beneficial.
Irrigation & Water Conservation for Mango Plantation
In today’s high tech farming of mango plantation we extremely needed Drip Irrigation for each and every orchard of Mango plantation. We should contact department for horticulture / PMKSY company team member for the proper water requirement for the plant and number of dripper require for the per plant as per peak water requirement. SO that PVC of the main and submain can be determined.
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Fertigation for Drip Irrigation System.
Water management in the garden is very important for the successful production of mangoes. Till the plant does not come to fruition for proper growth and development of the plant light irrigation should be done at an interval of 15-20 days in winter and 10 days in summer. Water should not be given till the time of fruit formation from about 3 months before the arrival.
If intercropping crop is being taken, then there is no need for that too at this time. At this time to preserve the moisture present in the soil it has been found beneficial to lay dry weeds or black polythene mulch around the stem of the plant. Irrigation from pea sized fruits to harvesting has shown an increase in fruit yield and quality.
Pests, Diseases and Control
Scilla moth – Scilla moth lays eggs on the lower surface of the leaves near the mid vein, from which microscopic nymphs emerge in the month of August and move towards the axils of the leaves. Here by sucking their juice, sharp knots start forming which make safe shelter for the insect.
To control them 3 sprays of Quinolphos (0.04%) should be done at an interval of 10-15 days between 10th August. Pruning of insect affected twigs or pointed knots has been found beneficial. The damage caused by this pest can be avoided with regular management of 2-3 years.
Milliweg – It is an early appearance of white insect group on the lower surface of the fruit twigs and fruit due to the cottony body. In extreme cases the twigs dry up. For their management spraying of Quinolphos 2 ml/L or Monocrotophos 1.5 ml/L should be done in March-April.
In the month of January, this pest can be eradicated by trapping its newborn by weeding around the stem and dusting 200 grams of chloropyrifos or methyl parathion or applying 30 cm bandage and grease on the stem with a polythene sheet.
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Fruit fly: Fruit fly damages the fruit before maturity by anchoring it. The appearance of their pupae in mature fruits leads to rotting. Their infestation is highest on late maturing varieties. The use of traps to trap adult insects in April-May has been found useful for its management.
In this, molasses of jaggery or toddy mixed with 02 percent carburyl is hanged on the tree in open boxes which attracts the adults and the pests die due to insecticide. In case of infestation, 2-3 sprays of Monocrotophos drug (at the rate of 1.25 ml / l water) should be done in the afternoon.
Stem borer Sometimes its outbreak is seen in thick twigs or stems. Large sized pups penetrate the stem and eat the inner part and also expel their venom in it, indicating their presence on the tree. Due to its infestation, the twigs either dry up or break. For control, by adding 2-3 drops of Nuvacron solution (10 ml / l of water) or petrol to the live hole, the effect of vaporized odor can be eliminated and the stem can be saved.
Powdery Mildew: – Powdery mildew survives on mango leaves which cause damage to the plant by becoming active at the stage of maturation and flowering. In favorable environment, the molds appear as white-gray velvety surface on the scene, due to which drying of flowers, fall of flowers and fruits starts. For its management, three sprays of Bavistin (01 percent) or Sulphex (0.2 percent) should be done in the month of December-January or at the interval of 10-15 days with the onset of the scene.
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Anthracnose:- Due to this disease, black sunken spots are formed on young leaves, twigs and fruits, on which black-black coal-like spots of needle-tip size can be seen. In severe cases, leaf or fruit drop and twig drying can be observed. For its prevention, 2-3 spraying of fungicide (02 percent) called Kavach or Idophil M-45 should be done on new leaves and growing fruits. Burning or burying the diseased twigs and leaves that have fallen due to its effect is beneficial.
Shooty mold – Due to the effect of this disease leaves, twigs or fruits are covered with black mold. Many fungi grow on the honeydew of honeybees or other secretory insects. In severe cases, the process of photosynthesis is hindered and economic loss occurs due to deterioration in the quality of fruits. For its prevention, control of savvy pests should be done. In case of exacerbation of disease, spray 3% solution of commercial starch or mod or gum with 125 ml/l monocrotophos or roger thrice at an interval of 15 days.
Pink disease: – Due to pink disease caused by fungus the branches of fully grown trees start drying one by one. For its control, after pruning the dry twigs from 15 cm below, the cut part should be coated with copper oxychloride and 2-3 sprays of this fungicide should be done.
Bacterial cancer:– The initial symptom is the formation of spots on leaves, twigs and fruits and the appearance of small shiny particles on them. In severe cases, fruit drop, drying of twigs and rotting of fruits can be seen. To prevent this, 3-4 sprays of 200 ppm of streptomycin or 2 percent solution of copper oxychloride are necessary within 7 days.
Note: Before providing any chemicals to your plant kindly consult to your nearest horticulturist of your Agriculture University or any KVK’s scientist.
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Cost Economics for the Mango Plantation:
|Cost Economics of Mango Farming for 1 Ha of Plot|
|1st Year Expanses||Expanses up to 5th year|
|1||Primary tillage operations||Tractor / Rotavator||4||1000||Hrs||4000|
|4||FYM / Compost||Composting||10||2500||Trolly||20000||20000|
|6||Conventional Fertilizer||DAP + Urea + Potash||1||3500||Set||3500||20000|
|7||Insecticides, Pesticides & Spraying||1||5000||Set||5000||4500|
|8||Irrigation & Electricity||1||4500||Set||4500||5000|
|Total Variable cost||74500|
|Investment on MIS||70000.00|
|a||Interest on MIS value @ 18%||12600.00|
|b||Depreciation @ 10%||7000.00|
|c||Maintenance @ 5%||3500.00|
|Total Fixed Cost||23100.00|
|Total Cost (A+B)||97600.00||104500|
|Mango Yield kg||15000||25||375000.00|
|After 5th year Annual sale will go up to valve of Rs. 6.00 lakh.|
|Note: This is a tentative rate considered. This may varies place to place. A fully grown mango orchard will give 200 -250 quintal per hactare.|