Banana cultivation project for Beginners.
Banana is the main fruit of our country. Banana fruit is very nutritious. In this, sugar salts and minerals like phosphorus are found in abundance in bananas. If its cultivation is doneif we keep the following things in mind then it will be economically beneficial.
Health benefits of eating Banana
Some of the health benefits of eating bananas are as follows:
- A special type of protein is found in banana which helps the body to feel comfortable.
- Whenever a patient of depression consumes banana, he gets relief. Apart from this, vitamin B6 found in banana keeps the level of blood glucose in the body right.
- Anemia can be reduced by consuming banana.
- Banana can help you reduce problems like gas, indigestion and gas in the stomach.
- Taking banana milk together maintains health in the body, it fulfills the lack of blood and makes the body strong.
- Eating banana provides relief in loose motion.
- Magnesium found in bananas helps the body in reducing cholesterol.
- Banana is a good source of vitamins that make the nervous system healthy.
Banana is an important food crop of tropical region. It is a cheap, complete and most nutrient-rich fruit. Banana is high in carbohydrates and low in protein and fat. Ripe banana is a good source of Vitamin A and a common source of C and B. Its vitamins do not get destroyed even when cooked at 60 °C. The various components found in banana are given below.
|Components available in Banana fruit|
Every part of the banana plant is useful.
- Paper boards, tissue paper and threads are made from its stem.
- Leaves are used for decoration and plate.
- Banana Chips Banana Fig, Soft Drink, Dough, Jam Paste, Chocolate, Vinegar can be made.
- It is used in making pectin and alcohol etc.
- Yield 15-30 kg banana produced per plant
Planting time: It can be planted throughout the year except two months of extreme cold (15 December to 15 February). Do not choose a shady place for planting bananas.
Vegetables purpose – Glass Banana, Behula, Battisa, Nendran, Brown Banana, Manohar
Fruit purpose – Gros Michel, Giant Cavendis, Dwarf Cavendis, Robusta, Red Banana, Champa, Malbhog
|Maharashtra||Kharif – June – July|
|Rabi – October – November|
|Tamil Nadu||February – April|
|November – December|
|Irrigated crop- August- September|
For long variety – 2.5m x 2.5m or 8ft x 8ft
Dwarf variety – 1.8m x 1.8m or 6ft x 6ft
|Kharif||1.5 x 1.5 m., 2 x 2 m. or 2.5 x 2.5 m.|
|Rabi||1.5 x 1.2 m., 1.5 x 1.37 m.|
For Tissue culture variety – 1.5m x 1.5m (For high density crop)
Dug measurement for the plantation of Banana – 2’ x 2’ x 1.5’
Process of pit filling for the Banana plantation:
Mix 5 kg rotten dung manure and half kg neem cake per pit and plant it in the filled pit. Plant banana suckers just one week after filling the pit. Tissue cultured plants should be planted without disturbing the root soil by tearing the polythene packet, otherwise they will suffer.
Manure Application Method:
Apply compost to a depth of two to three inches from the top surface of the soil in a circular shape around the banana pit. Use manure for the first and second time at a distance of 6-8″. For the 3rd and 4th time use manure at a distance of one hand (40-50 cm).
Use manure for the fifth and sixth time at a distance of 2″ (50 cm). After applying the soil for the third time on the roots of the plants do the work of manure.
Manure Application Method:
Pour the soil in a circular shape to a depth of two to three inches from the top surface of the soil. Use manure for the first and second time at a distance of 6-8″. For the third and fourth time use manure at a distance of one hand (40-50 cm). Use manure for the fifth and sixth time at a distance of 2″ (50-60 cm). After applying manure for the third time, do the work of earthing the roots of the plants.
Irrigate at an interval of 10-15 days from October to February in the orchard grown by suckers and at an interval of 6-8 days from March to May.
Use drip system for irrigation.
In the banana garden where using tissue cultured seedlings or general suckers make a hand-circle around the plant and to we need supply water only to this pit. If the right amount of water is given to the banana plants through drip irrigation at the right time then definitely up to 30% increase in fruit yield can be achieved.
Intercropping: Banana plants draw more nutrients from the soil. Also, banana plants require more water after flowering. After planting banana plants in the beginning you can plant other crops like few vegetables in between. Some of special points should be kept in mind while selecting another crop. From day 181 to flowering, till the flowers are ready, vegetables like brinjal, arbi, brinjal, okra, coriander, fenugreek etc. can be applied ginger and turmeric at the time when the greens become shady. You should not take pumpkin variety crop for intercropping cultivation in Banana.
Supervise (Maintain the Banana plant):
Trim off the following parts.
Redundant end ground
Dry and insect-rich leaves
When the inflorescence emerges from the parent plant, leave only one rhizome, remove the other one near the root.
Do not prune dry leaves even during extreme cold, otherwise the amasi stem may get affected by the cold.
Seal the bag with sacks or upper leaves. In case of excessive rain or strong wind, at the time of inflorescence, make a stand of two bass and lean back. At this time put soil on the stools. Use windproof plants (such as Buck) around the banana orchard. Do very shallow and low weeding. Limit weeding to 3 to 5 times. Weed control is done by mulching and cutting them and laying them at the same place. In such a situation use a little extra amount of ophthalmic fertilizer as well.
The main diseases of banana are Panama wilt foliar and top bunch disease. Its main pests are banana mite, leaf and fruit beetle and mahu.
Their prevention measures
- Keeping the garden clean
- Use of disease free intercrops
- Uproot and burn the affected plants or destroy them and bury them in the pit.
- Banana cultivation should not be done in alkaline soil.
- Good drainage system
- Use of disease resistant varieties
- Adopting banana paddy crop rotation or leaving the fallow field filled with water for six months.
- Use of lime of 30-37 tonnes per hectare if the soil is more acidic.
Mulching on Banana Gareden:
Under the plants 8 cm thick straw or sugarcane leaf should be placed in the month of October this reduces the number of irrigation by 40 percent. The rudder does not grow and the fertility of the grown is increases.
New sucker plants development:
Suckers coming out from the side of the plant should be removed from the surface of the soil before it reaches even 20 cm. In the month of May-June, a sucker should be left near each plant for the next year’s tree. Cut off the bunch from the male flower when the fruit is stable, the bunch of male flower hanging on the front part of the house should be cut.
Support to the Banana Plant
While crossing, the plants should be supported from two sides by making a catch of bass/ball.Before the rain, all the plants in a row should be tied with soil from both the sides.
Pani vitil This insect feeds on tender leaves and peels of freshly ripened fruits. It starts from April-May and lasts till September-October. For prevention the first spray should be done immediately after flowering and the second after 15 days after dissolving Karyaril in 2 g liters of water.
Banana weevil (Banana Vivil) Both the adults and the nectar of this insect are harmful. It is more in rainy season. By making a hole in the stem or rhizome near the ground surface, the female continues to eat the eggs by making a hole in the body. As a result, rotting occurs; the plant becomes weak and falls.
To prevent plant from pest we need following thing to keep in mind
Healthy tubers should be planted.
Before planting, the seeds should be cleaned and treated in a solution made of one milliliter per liter of water after 12 hours.
In case of more outbreaks, one ml. Spraying of Phosphamihan per liter of water or Dimethioate 10 ml easy methyl 125 ml per liter of water should be done. If necessary, this spray should be repeated after 15-20 days.
Panama Bilt It is caused by fungus. Due to its outbreak, the leaves of the plant turn yellow and bend down from the stalk. Eventually the whole plant dries up. For prevention, the soil around the plants should be drenched twice with an interval of 20 days with a solution of 10 liters per liter of propiconazole.
Naglan (Sudoh gut) this disease is caused by mildew. The new leaf emerging from its outbreak becomes empty and starts rotting. Due to this, the growth of the plant stops and the plant turns yellow and starts drying. For prevention, spraying of 2 grams of Dithane M-45 or 10 grams of Bavstein per liter of water should be done at an interval of 10-15 days as per requirement.
This disease is caused by fungus. Yellowish gray spots are formed on the leaves. The plant becomes weak and the growth stops. 2-3 sprays of Rotu Bithane M-45@2gm or 25gm of Copper cycloride per liter of water should be done with an interval of 10-15 days.
It is caused by a virus and is transmitted by the mother. The leaves of diseased plants become smaller and take the form of clusters. Plant growth stops and no fruit is produced. For prevention, the affected areas should be uprooted and burnt. There should be no pups from disease affected orchards for the next crop to grow. For the control of mahu, spraying of body chemicals like imidachlorpind 0.3 ml per liter of water should be done.
Fruiting and plucking
The fruits come about 12 months after planting. After about 36 months, house cutting is done. When the beans become round instead of triangular, then they should be considered as fully developed. 60-70 tons of yield can be obtained from one hectare orchard, due to which the net can be up to 60-70 thousand.
Cost Economics of Banana Plantations:
|Economics of Banana cultivation under Micro Irrigation (1 Ha)|
|1||Primary tillage operations||Tractor / Rotavator||4||1000||Hrs||4000|
|2||Banana Plant (Tissue culture Plant)||4500||15||1||67500|
|4||FYM / Compost||Composting||10||2500||Trolly||25000|
|6||Conventional Fertilizer||DAP + Urea + Potash||1||3500||Set||3500|
|7||Insecticides, Pesticides & Spraying||1||5000||Set||5000|
|8||Irrigation & Electricity||1||4500||Set||4500|
|Total Variable cost||141000|
|Investment on MIS||112500.00|
|a||Interest on MIS value @ 18%||20250.00|
|b||Depreciation @ 10%||11250.00|
|c||Maintenance @ 5%||5625.00|
|Total Fixed Cost||37125.00|
|Total Cost (A+B)||178125.00|
|Banana yield (Kg)||45000||10||450000.00|
|Note: This is a tentative rate considered. You can plan as per rate available in your territory.|