How Can You Start Pomegranate Farming?
Pomegranate is an important fruit crop of India. You should know that pomegranate can be cultivated in slightly warmer regions than in other areas. If you do pomegranate cultivation properly and scientifically then you can earn at least 5 to 6 lake rupees annually.
For this you will have to wait four years after planting the plants in the garden. You also need to complete take care of the plant from beginning to time when you want to take fruits from the plant. Just as the demand for pomegranate is increasing in the country and abroad its cultivation and land is increasing. In view of getting good price of pomegranate in the domestic and foreign market the trend of the fruit cultivators is increasing rapidly towards the cultivation of pomegranate.
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Apart from being healthy, it is very tasty. It is a very good source of vitamins it is rich in vitamins A, C and E and folic acid. Being rich in minerals such as iron, potassium, phosphorous, calcium, antioxidants and fiber it is very important for the human being. Pomegranate fruit is considered the best natural source of antioxidants. It is used as a fresh fruit and in various processed products.
Some health benefits of pomegranate
This is a very beneficial fruit full of energy. If we take pomegranate juice daily, then no disease will be able to enter our body. It is because of only one quantity that all types of proteins and vitamins are found in pomegranate which fulfills every need of our body.
- Pomegranate juice regulates blood circulation, due to which the energy level in our body remains stable.
- Pomegranate fruit reduces frozen cholesterol in the body works on the waste fat in the veins which also works to reduce the risk of heart blockage and heart attack.
- Pomegranate fruit is considered very helpful in reducing one’s stress.
Climatic requirement for the Pomegranate:
It is highly recommended that deep loamy and well drained soil is very suitable for this crop. Soil must be with rich nutrient and organic material. Pomegranate plants have amazing ability to tolerate salt and alkalinity. 6.5 to 7.5 pH It can also be successfully cultivated in soils with soil salinity of 9.00 EC/mm and alkalinity up to 6.78 ESP. Deep sandy-loam land is best suited for pomegranate cultivation. But it can be cultivated in alkaline soil also. Not only this a good yield of pomegranate can also be obtained by irrigation with saline water.
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The climate of arid and semi-arid region is very good for pomegranate production. Hot and dry climate is suitable for fruit development and ripening. Full grown fruits require a relatively low temperature for color and a deep red color in the grains and sweetness. Due to extreme fluctuations in humidity and temperature in the environment the problem of fruit cracking occurred. So it increases which adversely affects their quality.
Verities of Pomegranate:
We must select varities as per suitability of the climate, soil water quality and market availability For the arid region
G137, Alandi,Dholka, Kandhari, Red, Paper shelled, Spanish Ruby, Ganesh GB 1, P23, P 26, Mridula, Aarakta, Jyoti, Ruby IIHR these are some important varities. That you can select as per your climatic consition and availability of plant.
Plant preparation – Hardwood cutting is the easiest and most commercial method of vegetative propagation of pomegranate. One year ripe twigs are selected for making cuttings. When annual pruning of twigs takes place at that time about 15-20 cm. long healthy cuttings in that 3-4 healthy buds are present are cut and made into bundles. Top and bottom cuts should be done just below the eye. For identification, the upper cut of the pen should be made oblique and the lower cut should be made straight.
After that the cut cuttings should be soaked in 0.5 percent carbendazim or copper oxychloride solution and the soaked part should be dried in shade. Before planting the cuttings, 6 cm of the base part. Head 2000 ppm (2 g/L) I.B.A. Treat it in the solution for 55 seconds. Due to this, the roots break quickly. The cuttings are planted slightly slanting in the bags filled with suitable mixture. About half the length of the pen is kept inside the ground and half outside.
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Two eyes should be buried outside the ground and the other eyes in the ground. While burying the pen it is very important to keep in mind that the pen does not get stuck anywhere. Irrigation should be done after planting cuttings and after that regular irrigation should be done. After about 2 months the overgrown twigs should be pruned and agricultural activities and spraying etc. should be done from time to time.
Establishment of pits for planting pomegranate orchards:
The dug preparation for the plantation must be started in the month of may end. The digging work should be completed in the month of May. For this, at a distance of 4 x 4 m (625 saplings per hectare) or 5 x 3 m (666 saplings per hectare) by square or rectangular method dig pits of size 60 x 60 x 60 cm and soak them well with a solution of 0.1 percent carbendazim after that spraying of carbonyl powder and thimet at the rate of 50 grams per pit should also be done before filling the pit. For the place where there is a problem of bacterial blight 100 grams of calcium hypochlorite per pit should also be treated with 10 kg in top fertile soil.
Decomposed rotten cow dung or mint manure, 2 kg. Vermicompost, 2 kg Mixing neem cake and if possible 25 grams of Trichoderma (for the fungus problem in root side) etc fill the pits up to the top and pour water so that the soil settles well. Applying 100 grams of Nitrogen, 50 grams of Phosphorous and 50 grams of Potash per pit a day before planting has a favorable effect on the establishment of plants. July-August is the best time for planting saplings but if adequate irrigation facilities are available plants can be planted in February-March also.
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Pruning for the Pomegranate: In pomegranate plants many branches keep coming out from the base. If these are not removed from time to time many main stems will formed which adversely affects the yield and quality. From the point of view of yield and quality only 3-4 main stems should be kept in each plant and the rest should be removed from time to time.
In pomegranate flowers and fruits continue to bloom for 3-4 years on the tip of the same mature branches. So regular pruning is not necessary. But dry diseased twigs disorganized branches and suckers should be kept in dormancy. It will be very important for the every pomegranate orchard plantation.
Soil testing: It is a very important things that determine the fertilizers and micronutrients. It is necessary to provide 10 kg in normal soil decomposed cow dung, 250 grams of nitrogen, 125 grams of phosphorus and 125 grams of potassium should be given per tree per year. Its quantity should be increased every year in such a way that after five years each plant can be given 625 grams of nitrogen, 250 grams of phosphorus and 250 grams of potassium respectively. This will complete enhance the quality of your plant in strength.
Initially for three years when the plants are not producing fruits fertilizers should be given thrice in January, June and September and in the fourth year when the fruits start coming, it should be given twice according to the season. In dry areas taking antelope is recommended. Therefore, full quantity of dung manure and phosphorus and half quantity of nitrogen and potash in July and remaining half in October, 15-20 cm in a circumference of one to one and a half meters around the plants. It should be poured deeply and mixed in the soil. Micro elements have a different importance in pomegranate cultivation. For this zinc sulphate (6 g / l.). Foliar spray of Ferrous Sulphate (4 g/L) and Borax (4 g/L) or Multiplex 2 ml/Litre should be done at the time of flowering and fruit formation.
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Irrigation and water management: Irrigation is an important factor for successful production of pomegranate. Irrigation is required at an interval of 5-7 days in summer, 10-12 days in winter and 10-15 days in rainy season. Drip irrigation system is very beneficial in pomegranate as it saves 20-43 percent of water as well as increases the yield by 30-35 percent and also solves the problem of fruit burst to some extent. To conserve soil moisture mulching of black polythene (150 gauge) should be laid and foliar spraying of 6 percent (6 g / l) solution of kaolin is very beneficial.
Intercropping: For the first three to four years of planting the garden a lot of space remains between the rows. For which they do intercropping for proper use. Not only can additional profit be earned from this action but it also helps in preventing soil erosion. Protecting it from frost and strong winds, controlling the fertility and water holding capacity of the land. Pulse crops like cowpea, guar, moth, moong etc. are suitable intercrops for this region.
Spring Control: Pomegranate flowers come throughout the year. But it has three main seasons which are January-February, June-July and September-October. Flowering and taking fruits many times in a year is a matter of yield and quality.
It is recommended to take Jan – Feb crop according to the lack of water in the dry area and the climate here. It flowers in June-July and fruits become available for harvesting in December-January i.e. most of the fruit development is completed in the rainy season. Irrigation is stopped sometime before (March to May) to control unwanted spring work can be done.
Disease and pest management: In dry areas, the problem of diseases and pests is relatively less. The main diseases and pests of pomegranate and their control measures are given below.
Disease: leaf and fruit spot disease in Pomegranate
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It is a fungal disease in which brown spots of fungus appear on the leaves and fruits due to which the market price of the fruit falls.
Two sprays of carbendazim (1.0 ml/l) or mancozeb (2.5 g/l) or copper oxychloride (2.5 g/l) or thiophenate methyl (1.5 ml/l) at an interval of 15–20 days resulted in spots. Should do the same. fruit rot disease
Phytope Thora Blight
Mite – The fruits turn black and rot.
In the rainy season due to excess moisture in the environment leaves, flowers and fruits are affected and rotting also starts in the fruit.
The infestation of termites is a serious problem in the establishment of pomegranate seedlings in arid regions. There is excessive infestation in the roots and stems due to which the plants dry up.
The larvae released from the eggs laid by the adult butterfly enter the fruit by piercing it and keep eating the pulp of the fruit.
Often white and red colored microscopic organisms stick to the veins on the upper and lower surface of pomegranate leaves and suck the juice due to which the leaves turn upwards and dry up and fall due to severe infestation. At the time of flowering and 20 days after that, one of the above medicines should be sprayed.Metalaxyl 8 percent + Mancozeb (0 25 percent) should be sprayed when the disease is observed.
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Only rotten cow dung should be put in the plants. Spraying 50 grams of carbonyl powder and Thimet must be done before filling the pit. Chlorpyriphos 2 ml/l solution should be used in standing crop. The affected fruits should be plucked and destroyed and sprayed with Phosphomidon (0.05%) or Carbaryl (4 g/Litre). Chlorpyrifos (2 ml/l) as soon as an outbreak occurs. Spraying of imidachlorpid (0.04 percent) or dichlorvos (0.05 percent) should be done.
Harvesting & Yield: After four year of your plantation you must go for the harvesting. You may get up to 400 to 600 quintal of your final goods. If you were done good fertigation and disease control of your plant. For getting maximum yield you must need to go with drip irrrigation system.
Cost economics for the pomegranate farming:
|Economics of Pomegranate Farming for 1 Ha of Plot|
|1st Year Expanses||Expanses up to 5th year|
|1||Primary tillage operations||Tractor / Rotavator||4||1000||Hrs||4000|
|4||FYM / Compost||Composting||10||2500||Trolly||25000||20000|
|6||Conventional Fertilizer||DAP + Urea + Potash||1||3500||Set||3500||20000|
|7||Insecticides, Pesticides & Spraying||1||5000||Set||5000||4500|
|8||Irrigation & Electricity||1||4500||Set||4500||5000|
|Total Variable cost||93000|
|Investment on MIS||100000.00|
|a||Interest on MIS value @ 18%||18000.00|
|b||Depreciation @ 10%||10000.00|
|c||Maintenance @ 5%||5000.00|
|Total Fixed Cost||33000.00|
|Total Cost (A+B)||126000.00||104500|
|After 5th year Annual sale will go up to valve of Rs. 6.00 lakh.|
|Note: This is a tentative rate considered. This may varies place to place.|