General Description of Guava
Guava is a major fruit of India which rank 4th in all over the world from cultivation. Now days Sawai Modhopur of Rajasthan has done the tremendous production on Guava plantation and production. It is giving good yield to the nation. It is mainly cultivated successfully in Allahabad, Lucknow, Agra, Basti, Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh as well as Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, northern and central regions of Gujarat and Jharkhand.
In addition to being eaten fresh, the fruit of the Guava is also used to make preserves (jellys, sweats, nectars, ciders, and toffees from the pulp left over after extracting the juice). Vitamin ‘C’, iron and other minerals are found in abundance in Guava fruits. Guava have a higher concentration of all vitamins, especially vitamin A and vitamin C. Guava is also richer in vitamin E.
Variety of Guava:
|Fruit weight (Gram)
|Lucknow – 49
Let’s see some health benefits of Guava cultivation:
- Guava can be able to lower the blood sugar level
- It can balance and regulate the high blood pressure
- It helps body to reduce cholesterol level which is basic reason for heart disease.
- It may relieve pain from symptom of menstruation in females
- Guava repairs your digestive system.
- Guava can help your body to reduce your weight.
- Guava may increase your body’s immune level.
- Guava may help to cure in type 2 diabetes
- Guava may help to cure in flu
- Guava may help in to cure cancer
- Through Eating Guava it may glow your skin
Land and climatic requirement for the Guava Plantation:
Water logging can harm the guava plantation. Well drained sandy-loam soil has been found to be very suitable for the successful farming of Guava. Soil whose pH is The value is slightly less than normal proving suitable for Guava cultivation.
It is a sub-tropical fruit tree which can be successfully grown in low humidity areas of states. Due to the sub-tropical climate, Guava is available for a long time. In India there are three seasons for guava fruiting. But the fruits of which are ripe in autumn are considered to be the best.
In the sub-tropical climate of India the flowers of Guava plants start coming from mid-March which keeps coming intermittently till September and its fruits are obtained from mid-August to the end of March. Such possibilities are probably rarely found elsewhere in the country. If irrigation arrangements are made in Guava from November to March, then its fruits have been seen at par with Allahabad in quality.
Best & suitable varieties of Guava:
Sardar (Lucknow-49): Trees of this variety were of medium height and spread. It is a commercial variety whose fruits are elliptical light green to yellow and sometimes spotted. In this the pulp is more and the seed is hard.
Allahabad White: Its trees are medium sized and more spreading. The shape of the fruit is round to flat which turns light yellow when ripe. The seeds are soft and sweet in fruits of this variety. It is a commercial variety which is very popular in the Gangetic plain of Allahabad.
Arka Mridula: This is a variety selected from the Biju plant of Allahabad Safeda. Its trees are small medium sized and the fruits of this variety are round and flat in shape in which the seeds are less and soft. Its pulp is more soft, sweet and tasty.
The comparative description of the major varieties of Guava is given below:
|Fruit weight (Gram)
|Lucknow – 49
Seed propagation for Guava Plantation:
Guava plants are prepared botanically for commercial cultivation. Plants prepared by this method give fruit quickly and the variety remains intact. In this method sticking, pressing (strall layering) and tying of glasses (patch budding) are prominent.
How to prepare new guava plant?
To prepare the peg 40-50 cm from the top on the selected branch in the month of June-July 2 cm near the first knot. Remove the bark and make a ring. 1000 ppm IBA at the top end of the ring. After applying the paste, cover the rings with moist grass and wrap a piece of polythene and tie it tightly with twine. Roots emerge within about 2 months of tying. So at this time about half the leaves of the branch are removed and cut from the main plant and planted in a partially shady place in the nursery. For better plant growth you can use pond soil (40 kg), rotted cow dung (40 kg), rotten piece of jute sack (10 kg) and karanj cake (2 kg).
Another method of preparing Guava plant that is stool layering. Plant prepared by Gooty is 2x2m. Plant it in the nursery at a distance. When the plant becomes one to two years old it is cut to the ground in March-April. After cutting, many new buds emerge from it. On these buds 5-6 cm from the ground has to make. After that the rotted manure of cow dung and soil are mixed well and the rings are covered. Irrigate the plant from time to time as needed. Roots emerge within 2 months in stool layering which are separated from the main plant and planted in a shady place. While stooling leaves a ‘nurse shoot’ (without ring) which feeds the plant
One year old made by seed plant rootstock is used for preparation of seedlings by patch budding. In the study done at this center the month of May-June has been found to be the most suitable for patch budding in Guava.
Tissue culture Guava: This is another method of guava plant preparation. As the name shows it is prepared in the laboratory. After primary and secondary hardening of the plant you can plant this in your garden with manures. It can start to provide fruit after one year and increase his quantity year by year. It is coming in the name of Thai Pink Guava in the market. Its flesh is generally less sweet with less seed and with high nutrient value.
Planting and Maintenance of Guava plantation:
Guava plant is relatively small in height so it is 5 x 5 should be placed at a distance. In India Guava plants can also be planted as supplementary plants in mango, litchi, Amla (Gooseberry) and jackfruit orchards. To produce more fruits per unit area, Guava is planted at 2.5 x 2.5 x 5 m. We are calling this in ultra high density guava plantation. It can be planted in a double hedge manner.
The time of July to September has been found to be very suitable for planting saplings in this area. In areas where irrigation facilities are available, planting can be done in February-March also. One month before planting saplings, 60 x 60 x 60 cm at the fixed distance. Size pits should be prepared. Leave the pit open for 15 days. After that 15-20 kg of friable soil put on the top of the pit.
Correct manure of cow dung 1 kg karanj / Neem cake and 60 gm N. P.K. Mix the mixture and fill the pit well. After a rain when the soil of the pit gets buried then in the month of July plant the saplings in the middle of the pit. After planting the plant press it well with the soil on all four sides of it. Make a dug around the plant for 10-15 liters. Give water and keep watering the peaches till they are fully established.
Take care of Guava plantation:
To give a beautiful and strong structure in Guava plants harvesting is done for 2 – 3 years. In case of Tissue culture guava plantation we can get fruit after 2nd year. While giving the structure it should be kept in mind that 30 – 40 cm from the ground. At this height, 3-4 branches should be allowed to emerge from the main stem equally on all four sides. After that, necessary pruning should be done from time to time to keep the size of the plant regular and for good yield.
Irrigation scheduling for Guava Plantation:
To get more and proper yield for guava we need to install drip irrigation system for guava plantation. We should install Drip Irrigation from beginning of the guava plantation. To design with drip irrigation we must consider for the peak water requirement for the Guava. Irrigation should be done regularly in small Guava plants. After irrigation weeding hoeing is necessary for the plantation. Weeding should be done from time to time.
When the plant comes into fruiting stage irrigation is required to get the crop of the specified season good yield can be obtained. It has been observed that if mulch or grass mulch is applied to the plant pads in the month of October there is a good effect on fruit yield and quality. Such mulch also uses to protect the moisture around the soil and give proper fertility.
How to provide Manures and Fertilizers in Guava Plantation?
The use of manure and fertilizer in balanced quantity is necessary for good quality and high fruit production from the Guava orchard. For this area according to the age of the plants the amount of fertilizer and fertilizer has been recommended which should be divided into two parts the first part should be given in the month of June-July and the second part in the month of October.
|Plant age in Year
|Rotten Cow Dung (Kg)
|Super phosphate (gram)
|Potassium Sulphate (gram)
|5 or more
In June-July full quantity of rotted manure, phosphorus and potash and half quantity of urea are applied one meter from the mid of stem. Cover it with soil by giving it in a deep groove/ditch. Apply the remaining half of the urea to the soil in October under the field of trees. If it is not raining, it is necessary to water after composting so that the moisture remains.
How to do crop management in Guava plantation?
Generally Guava plants produce flowers and fruits thrice a year. The flowers of the first crop come in February-March, whose fruits are ready in May-June. In places where there is proper irrigation system good profit can be earned from the crop of this season.
The flowers of the second crop appear in May-June which is second crop of the season. The fruits of this spring are ready for ripening in the rainy season due to which the quality of the fruits is not good and there is more outbreaks of diseases along with fruit borer pests.
The flowers of the third crop come in October-November. The fruits of this crop are ready in winter (January-February). This crop gives relatively high yield and quality fruits.
It has been concluded from the study of Horticulture and Agro-Forestry Research Program that in the climate of described state farmers get more quality fruits and more yield than any other crop due to. For which a crop regulation technique has also been developed which is simple and profitable from the commercial point of view.
Under this season two sprays of 15% urea solution are done on the plants at an interval of 10 days in April-May due to which the flowers and leaves fall. After that, more vigorous flowers and fruits come in second crop with foliar power. There by increasing the yield.
Production and marketing of Guava:
The fruits of Guava are preferred only in the ripe stage so harvesting should be done according to the color of the fruit and the hardness of the pulp. Harvesting of fruits with two leaves at an interval of 2-3 days gives good price in the market. The fruits can be sent to the market by placing them in baskets of bamboo or a fold of newspaper.
Guava plant starts giving fruits after two years of planting. On an average 30 to 40 kg from a five year old plant can provide the fruit with good irrigation and fertigation practices. You will get 70 – 80 kg from 10 year old plant. Fruit is obtained every year. If good care is taken, then from the Guava orchard,you can get the yield of fruits for 15-25 years.
Pest and Diseases control on Guava Plantation
Fruit flies in Guava: This type of insect feed on the nascent inner part of the fruit. Its female pierces ripe fruits and lays eggs. After 2-3 days the larva comes out of the egg and starts eating the flesh. Affected fruits rot and fall. After 12-15 days the mouth turns into a pupa inside the fruit or in the ground and later flies away as a fly. This fly affects more on rainy fruits. We should use cypermethrin 2.0 ml/L for fruit fly control or monocrotophos 1.5 ml/l. (You must use chemicals after proper identification of actual insect and better to consult an a Horticulturist.) Make a solution in water at the rate of 2 to 3 sprays at an interval of 10 days before maturity. Affected fruits should be plucked and destroyed.
Stem Borer in Guava: It is a harmful pest of amaranth whose infestation is more in those orchards which are not properly looked after. The rot of this insect damages the upper part of the soft shoots by piercing it. To prevent this, clean the pores of the stem soak cotton in the solution of Nuwan (2 ml / l water) and fill the holes and close them with wet soil.
Wilt disease in Guava: Wilt disease is caused by the effect of fungus. Diseased plants wither and die in 2-4 weeks. Sometimes due to partial wilting some branches dry up and some remain green but such trees also dry up completely by the following year. For its prevention the use of bio-pesticide called Kalisena (commercial form of Aspergillus niger) at the time of plantation has given partial success. 50 or 5 kg of this biopesticide. Transplant the seedlings by mixing it with rotted cow dung manure in the pit. The use of potassium and karanj cake cake has been found to reduce the severity of wilt disease in plants.
Zinc deficiency: It causes yellowing of leaves shortening and reduced plant growth. For its control spraying of 2% zinc sulphate at 300 gm. Giving zinc sulphate (agriculture grade) in the roots of plants has been founded beneficial.
Cost Economics of Guava Plantation:
|Economics of Guava cultivation for 1 Ha
|1st Year Expanses
|Expanses up to 5th year
|Planting material ( pcs of culm)
|FYM / Compost
|DAP + Urea + Potash
|Insecticides, Pesticides & Spraying
|Irrigation & Electricity
|Total Variable cost
|Investment on MIS
|Interest on MIS value @ 18%
|Depreciation @ 10%
|Maintenance @ 5%
|Total Fixed Cost
|Total Cost (A+B)
|Yield from 3rd year
|Note: This is a tentative rate considered. This may varies place to place.
|Investment on first year
|1500 plant will give minimum of10-15 Kg of fruit will be sold out @ Rs. 20 each.
|Net profit on 3rd year
|In consecutive 4th and 5th year you will get increased number of fruits and your profit will be added.