Pineapple Cultivation guide for beginners.
General Properties of Pineapple
Eating pineapple increases the immunity of the body. Due to which many types of diseases get rid of. It is beneficial to eat pineapple in case of cold. Magnesium is found in abundance in pineapple fruits. Due to which the bones also get strong. Its fruits are mostly used in food. As a food, it is used in making salads, juices, cakes, jams and jellies.
Pineapple is rich in Vitamin C.
Pineapple helps a lot in reducing body weight.
Pineapple greatly strengthens the digestive system.
Pineapple helps to increase immunity.
Pineapple helps the cancer patient to fight the disease.
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General description for the Pineapple
Mainly pineapple is a hot climate plant. Pineapple plant is small in size. Whose area is around two feet only. Tropical climate is best suited for its plants. Pineapple can be easily cultivated in many types of climate yet loamy soil is best for its cultivation. For this, soil with pH value of 5 to 6 and humus rich soil is considered to be much better. Pineapple plants require a lot of warm weather. But excessive heat is also harmful for it. Its plants need more water. Sandy loam soil is most suitable for its cultivation.
Land requirement for Pineapple
Cultivation of pineapple requires fertile land with proper drainage. Waterlogged land is not suitable for its cultivation, as its fruits are planted at a height of one fit from the surface of the ground. For its cultivation, the pH value of the land is considered to be between 5 and 6.
Climate and temperature requirement for Pipeapple
Pineapple plant is a plant of tropical climate. Its plants grow well in dry weather. Winter season is not suitable for its plants. Because due to the frost in winter its fruits get spoiled. Its plants require normal rainfall. It can be easily grown at the altitude of 1000 to 1200 meters above sea level.
Pineapple plants need temperatures around 20 °C to germinate initially. After germination, its plants need normal temperature for growth. But its plant develops well even at a maximum temperature of 35 ° C. Higher than this temperature is harmful for its plants.
Important varieties for Pineapple
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Scientis have already developed suitable and high yield variety for Pine Apple. Which are designed to give more production in less time? Some varieties can be cultivated commercially.
Giant Q the leaves of this variety of plants are long and smooth. The size of the fruits on the plants is large. The weight of one fruit is found to be around three kg. It is cultivated as a late crop. About 80 percent of the plants of this variety are ready to mature after about 15 to 18 months after transplanting in the field.
Queen this is a very early maturing variety. Plants of this variety are very small in size and the size of the leaves is also small and the ends are jagged. The color of its fruits appears yellow or golden yellow after ripening. The flesh of the fruits of this variety is more delicious and golden yellow. The weight of one fruit is close to two kilograms.
This is an exotic variety of Mauritius Pineapple. Whose leaves appear jagged. The fruits of this variety take more than a year to ripen. The weight of its fruits is around two kilos.
Red Spanish This variety is less prone to diseases. It is good to eat this type of fruit fresh. The size of the fruits of this variety is normal. The outer shell of the fruits of this variety is hard, rough and yellowish red in color. Whose anus is yellow in color with acidic properties?
How to prepare land for Pine apple?
For the cultivation of pineapple, in the beginning, after cleaning the field properly, the remains of old crops present in it should be destroyed. After that, the soil of the field should be deeply plowed with a turning plow and left open for a few days. After that add old cow dung manure in the field and mix it well in the soil. The crop yield is good if two to three slant plowing of the field is done through the cultivator to mix the manure in the soil.
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Plowing is a very important part of pineapple, after plowing, run water in the field and pulverize it. After pulverizing, when the upper surface of the land appears dry, then by running rotavator, destroy all the lumps present in the soil and make it clay and friable. After running the rotavator, plant a pad in the field. This field appears flat.
Seed sowing and timing
Pineapple seedlings are prepared from the branches formed on its plants. These are known as Sucker, Slip and Crown. The sucker is prepared by removing the leaves from the ground part of the plant and the slip is prepared from the branches emerging from the ground part. Whereas the crown is prepared from the branches formed on the fruit. They should be cleaned and treated before planting in the field.
Before treating the plant its first yellow appearing leaves should be plucked and removed. After that the seeds should be treated with Cerasen solution or Thiram after drying in the sun for some time and planted in the fields. It is good to plant the parthi prepared from its sucker because the saplings planted with sucker start giving fruits after about 15 months of transplanting. Whereas plants planted with slim and cown take 20 to 24 months to bear fruit after transplanting.
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Best spacing for sowing of Pineapple
Its seeds are planted in rows by making beds in the field. The size of its maid should be two feet wide. It is good to plant its plants in two rows on a bed. While making a bed a distance of one and a half to two feet should be kept between each bed and while planting its plants on the bed, a distance of about one fit should be kept between the plants. Its plants should be grown on both sides on the med.
Pineapple plants can be transplanted whenever there is moisture in the field. Whereas in India it is grown during the rainy season because the moisture content remains in the fields during this time. It helps its plants to germinate. But where irrigation system is proper it can be planted during the months of February and March also.
Best method of Irrigation for Pineapple
After transplanting pineapple plants their first irrigation should be done according to the water requirement. If you are planting it in the rainy season then water should be given to the field only after the soil dries up. It is advisable to give water to its plants through slow flow or through drip because its roots are uprooted. It is advisable to irrigate its plants thrice a month after the sprouts.
Application of fertilizer for Pineapple
Pineapple plants need more fertilizer. Therefore, at the time of plowing the field, add about 15 to 17 carts of old cow dung manure or any organic manure and mix it in the soil. Apart from this 450 kg of ammonium sulphate, 200 kg of phosphorus and 450 kg of potash should be given to the plants twice a year in the form of chemical fertilizers. Due to this the plants grow well. Apart from this, 50 ml calcium carbide should be sprayed on the plants for longer yield.
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Take care of Pineapple Plant
By taking good care of pineapple plants more production can be obtained from its plants. Its plants start bearing fruit about 18 months after sowing the seeds. During this the yellow visible leaves on the side should be removed. Due to this its plants develop well. After two months of flowering on its plants, spraying of the appropriate amount of Salmon gives an increase in the fruits.
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To bring roots to the slip and crown of pineapple treat them with 50 to 100 ppm solution of IBM which makes the roots grow faster and more. Total 10 ppm Spray co-plotrolox with 2% urea, till the plant has total 30 to 40 leaves and after simultaneous spraying, fruits will come together.
Intercultural Operations for Pineapple Cultivation
It is better to do weed control naturally by doing manually. For weed control in a natural way four to five weedings of plants are done. The first weeding of its plants should be done lightly about 25 to 30 days after transplanting. During the first weeding the weeds visible near the plants should be removed by hand and soil should be applied to its roots. After the first weeding the rest of the weeding should be done at an interval of 25-25 days. After that, whenever weeds are seen in the field they should be removed.
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How to manage disease in pineapple?
Very few diseases are seen in pineapple plants. But there are some diseases, which cause great damage to its plants and fruits.
Apex thawing disease in plants has a greater impact on both the fruit and the plant. Its plants stop developing when the top rot disease is applied at an early stage. The entire fruit gets destroyed when this disease is applied. For the prevention of this disease neem oil or decoction should be sprayed on the plants.
Root rot the effect of root rot disease in plants is seen due to water logging. The plant dries up and perishes when this disease strikes. To prevent this disease, there is no water logging in the field and in case of disease, spray of Bordeaux mixture should be done in the game.
Black spot In plants the effect of black spot disease is visible on its leaves. When this disease is infested, dark brown spots appear on the leaves of the plants. Their size increases as the disease progresses. Due to which the plant stops growing. For the prevention of this disease, appropriate amount of Mancozeb or Neem oil should be sprayed on the plants.
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Harvesting for the Pineapple
Pineapple fruits are ready for harvesting about 18 to 20 months after seed sowing. They should be harvested only when its fruits are fully ripe. When the fruit is ripe, the leaves of the plant start turning yellow and the color of the fruit starts to appear reddish yellow. During this they should be plucked. After harvesting the fruits they should be cleaned and filled in a cartoon and sent to be sold in the market. After good cultivation of Pineapple we may get 70 tonnes of Pineapplen a hactare of plantation. Cost of cultivation is as below:
|Economics of Pineapple cultivation under Micro Irrigation (1 Ha)|
|1||Primary tillage operations||Tractor / Rotavator||4||1000||Hrs||4000|
|2||Pineapple suckers / Plant||3500||12||1||42000|
|4||FYM / Compost||Composting||10||2500||Trolly||25000|
|6||Conventional Fertilizer||DAP + Urea + Potash||1||3500||Set||3500|
|7||Insecticides, Pesticides & Spraying||1||5000||Set||5000|
|8||Irrigation & Electricity||1||4500||Set||4500|
|Total Variable cost||115500|
|Investment on MIS||112500.00|
|a||Interest on MIS value @ 18%||20250.00|
|b||Depreciation @ 10%||11250.00|
|c||Maintenance @ 5%||5625.00|
|Total Fixed Cost||37125.00|
|Total Cost (A+B)||152625.00|
|Note: This is a tentative rate considered. You can plan as per rate available in your territory.|
|(18 to 20 month crop cycle)|