Fertigation with Drip Irrigation:
In agriculture the process of controlling water to the plants and giving water as per the need is called irrigation and in irrigation along with water & fertilizers are also called fertigation. In drip irrigation the way water is given drop by drop by dripper similarly chemical fertilizers can also be mixed in irrigation water and delivered directly to the root of plants by drippers with the help of fertilizer injector called ventury system. Fertigation is the best and state-of-the-art method of giving fertilizers. It helps in all round development of plants.
Fertigation is a system in which the required amount of fertilizer can be obtained from the crops at the right place. By using it the crop can be increased according to the quality by increasing the production. In this, the requirement of nutrition and water can be fulfilled in low cost and quantity.
Fertigation is a method in which the technique of maintaining an adjusted level of water and fertilizers as per the requirement of the soil. In the present time fertigation is a simple and easy system by which is made available to the crop by making the right balance of nutrients and water. By this system there is no need to apply fertilizer to the entire field.
In order to get maximum quality yield through fertigation in drip fertilizers are used under fertigation with pre-planned irrigation at least in quantity and at short intervals. On this basis the plants get the necessary nutrients according to their needs in time. Through the fertigation technique the right amount of fertilizers and water is given to the plants in a timely manner and it delivers chemical fertilizers and water evenly across the area drop by drop by drippers directly near the root of the plant. This is the best modern technology of fertilizer application.
In fertigation fertilizers are often used in liquid form but dry and granular fertilizers can also be used in fertigation. In this before using dry and granular fertilizers, they make a solution in water. The rate of its dissolution depends on its solubility and the temperature of the water. Fertilizer solution should be filtered before fertigation.
In the drip irrigation system the fertilizers are injected between the pump filters with the help of a fertilizer injector device so that the undissolved fertilizers and salts do not sit inside the drip system and get separated from the filter.
Fertigation is known as a good technique to maintain proper level of fertilizers and water according to the requirements of the crop and the soil. The right coordination of water and nutrients is the key to high yield and quality. By fertigation fertilizers can be given in small quantities with pre-planned irrigation at early and short intervals, due to this the plants get nutrients as needed and valuable fertilizers are not wasted by leaching.
Generally only liquid fertilizers are used in fertigation. But granular and dry fertilizers can also be given through fertigation. Before giving dry fertilizers through fertigation their solution is made in water. The rate at which fertilizers dissolve in water depends on their solubility and water temperature. Fertilizer solution should be filtered before fertigation.
Benefits of Fertigation
- Fertigation ensures regular flow of water and nutrients, which increases the growth rate and quality of plants.
- By Fertigation nutrients can be given at the appropriate time according to the demand of the crop.
- Fertigation increases the availability of nutrients and their utilization by the roots of plants.
- Fertigation is a reliable and safe method of fertilization. Due to this there is no fear of damaging the roots of the plants.
- Fertigation does not allow water and fertilizers to reach the other than roots of the plant so less number of weeds grow between the plants.
- Fertigation does not pollute ground water. Fertigation allows the introduction of fertilizers gradually throughout the growth period of the crop without reducing the production.
- Fertigation is simpler and more convenient than any fertilizer application method.
- This saves time and labor.
- By Fertigation by drip irrigation, the crop can be grown in barren soils sandy or rocky soils where water and ions are difficult to control in the environment of the root zone of the plant.
- The efficiency of Fertigation use increases and fertilizers are required in less quantity.
The main three tools used in fertigation are to make the fertigation system successful.
- Fertilizer tank
- 2 Fertilizer slurry
- 3. Fertilizer injection device (Ventury System)
Fertilizer tank – Fertilizer tank is used to soluble fertilizers and to hold their solution. The fertilizer tank should be large enough to hold the fertilizer solution required for the crops. The fertilizer tank should be made of such a material that cannot be react with chemical used.
Fertilizer Dissolver: Fertilizer solution is used for making liniments of fertilizers under which dry and granular solutions are made. Water is slowly poured into the mesh box through an electric pump in which the granular fertilizer is filled and with the help of an electric pump. The water continues to circulate and the granular and dry fertilizers are completely dissolved in the water.
Fertilizer injection device – In the drip irrigation device fertilizer is injected between the fertilizer pump so that the undissolved fertilizer does not enter the system and is filtered out from the beehive. Only water should be given from drip system in one-fourth time of beginning and end and fertilizer injecting device should be run only for two-fourth time in between. The frozen fertilizers etc. in the drip irrigation system come out with the water and the problem of decay and blockage of the various components of the drip system is reduced.
Main precautions in fertigation While doing fertigation of plants, the following precautions should be taken –
- While mixing the fertilizers they should be mixed according to their consistency so that they can chemically react with each other to create a precipitate condition due to which the drip irrigation system does not have to face blockage.
- To prepare the solution of fertilizers the mixture of fertilizers should be pre-planned and in proportion.
- Sulphate and Phosphate containing fertilizers should not be mixed with yam free fertilizers.
- Fertilizer containing farfat should not be mixed with fixed fertilizers.