Why Organic Fertilizer Is Important ?
At present due to unbalanced use of fertilizers and lack of organic fertilizers the fertility of the soil is adversely affected as well as the number of beneficial bacteria in the soil is decreasing. This is also affecting the growth and yield of the plant in such a situation the use of bio–fertilizers can improve the condition of the soil and increase the number of bacteria necessary for the growth of plants.
Bio fertilizers is also called cultured bacteria because it is a living fertilizers in which microorganisms are present. By using bio fertilizers in crops nitrogen present in the atmosphere is easily available to the plants in the form of ammonia. And the insoluble phosphorus and nutrients already present in the soil are converted into soluble state and are easily available to the plants or crops.
In present the way we are using chemical fertilizers it can also be called misuse of natural resources. You will see the far-reaching effects of using chemical fertilizers. When we use bio fertilizers it uses natural bacteria to increase the fertility of the soil. Since these bacteria are natural their use increases the fertility of the soil, and there is no adverse effect on the health of the organisms and the environment.
Bio fertilizers is a supplement to chemical fertilizers not a substitute. Continuous and unbalanced use of chemical fertilizers has adversely affected our agricultural land and environment. Due to the decrease in the amount of organic matter in the soil its fertility decreases.
The use of excessive manure and sometimes by natural or surface method irrigation introduces chemical fertilizers under the ground, which also pollutes our ground water. In this way the water of our water bodies and land gets polluted.
It can be controlled to a great extent with Bio Fertilizers. In order to meet the deficiency of nutrients and to remove the effect of chemical fertilizers, scientists have prepared various types of eco-friendly bio–fertilizers by identifying the natural bacteria.
Bio nourishments are actually bacterial cultures that contribute to improving the condition of the soil as well as increasing the quality of agricultural produce. In our atmospheric air contains 82,000 tonnes of nitrogen per hectare of land or water, which is 79 percent of the total atmosphere. Which no plant can directly accept. But this stock can be used to some extent with the help of these bacteria in the soil.
These bacteria are supplied in the soil through bio fertilizers. Similarly the work of making the insoluble phosphorus present in the soil soluble and making it available to the plants in the form of food can also be done with the use of bio fertilizers. The information about different bio fertilizers is given below.
It is used by seed treatment in all types of pulse crops. Different Rhizobium cultures are used for different pulse crops. The bacteria present in the Rhizobium culture form glands on the roots of the plant and/or fix it in the soil of nitrogen present in the atmosphere and make it available to the plants in the form of food. Nitrogen carried by bacteria is fixed in the soil and makes it available to plants in the form of food.
Due to the nitrogen fixation done by bacteria a considerable amount of nitrogen remains in the soil even after harvesting of pulses. Due to which the next crop to be taken in that field needs to be given less nitrogen and the condition of the land also improves. The use of Rhizobium has shown an increase in crop yield by 20-30%.
In food vegetable fruit and oilseed crops which do not have glands in their roots. The use of Azotobacter is beneficial for nitrogen fixation. Azotobacter also releases some antibiotics that act as germicides. This soil it senses oxygen growth hormone and fungicides. The bacteria present in Azatobacter are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen while living independently. Due to which the crops get additional ophthalmic and fertilizers are saved.
Due to various activities in the soil, a large part of the phosphorus given by chemical fertilizers is not available to the plants. As a result it gets fixed, which is not available to plants due to being insoluble in water. The availability of such waste phosphorus is done by phosphobacteria. As a result, phosphorus Outgoing quantity is saved.
Benefits of using bio fertilizers
- They are cheap, due to which the yield increases with less cost.
- Provides nitrogen and phosphorus elements to plants.
- Bio fertilizers produce growth factor hormones which increase the yield.
- With their use the crop increases in buds more germination and development of roots. In these, along with increasing the water storage capacity of the soil the activities of micro-organisms increase.
- Use of bio–fertilizers controls soil-borne diseases, increases the number of micro-organisms and protects the environment.
- They reduce the required amount of chemical fertilizers, which saves capital.
- They increase the amount of starch, oil and sugar in the product of crops, which increases the quality.
The use of phosphobacteria with 89 ophthalmic bio fertilizers is particularly beneficial. The use of compost or dung manure fertilizers and bio–fertilizers is particularly beneficial in each crop.
Method of using bio fertilizers
Make a solution by taking 50 grams of jiggery in half a litre of water, after heating it slightly after cooling, add 200 grams of culture to it and mix it well. Mix the above solution evenly in 10-12 kg seed and dry it in shade.
Make a solution of one kilogram of organic fertilizers in 5-6 litres of water and cover one hectare of field. Transplant the plants required for transplanting by immersing them for 10 minutes. For sowing the tubers, dissolve one kilogram of culture in 20-25 litres of water and sow 10 quintals of tubers after treatment.
Mix 8-10 kg of culture with one quintal of cow dung or compost and apply it in one hectare field at the time of last tillage or before sowing.
Precautions in the use of bio fertilizers:
- Keep the culture out of sunlight. It should be stored in an earthen pot.
- Use only bio fertilizers recommended for different crops.
- Keep away from chemical fertilizers and insecticides.
- In case of chemical treatment, first fungicide, then insecticide and finally organic fertilizers should be used. In such a situation, double the amount of bio fertilizers should be used.
- Sowing of treated seeds is appropriate in the season.
- Open the packet before the treatment and use it before the expiry date.
- Use organic fertilizers just before sowing, transplanting, hoeing or irrigation.