What is the Importance of Micronutrients In Crop Production?
Due to the reduction of organic matter in the soil, sowing of high yielding species, indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, not adopting crop rotation, continuous irrigation with canals, saline water, there is a shortage of micronutrients in the fields. Too deep ploughing of the fields with rotavator / cultivator also leads to deficiency of zinc, sulphur, organic matter and Nitrogen. Nutrients get washed away with water even if the fields are not tied up.
Nutrients are required for adequate growth, yield and quality of crops. There are 16 elements found naturally in nature, which play an important role in the functioning of plant metabolism. Due to the lack of those nutrients, plants are unable to complete their life cycle and, therefore, they are considered essential nutrients for plant growth.
These essential nutrients are further divided on the basis of their consumption or requirement. Naturally available in air and water: carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
Available from Soil:
- Micronutrients: Iron, Copper, Zinc, Boron, Manganese, Molybdenum, and Chlorine. Some other elements were also discovered which were named as beneficial elements. The interaction of these nutrients has positive and antagonistic negative effects on plants. Good or bad effect on the growth of crops mostly depends on soil type soil quality parameters like pH, EC, organic carbon. Along with this it also depends on other basic properties of the soil like its physical, chemical and biological properties. The sources of nutrients like chemical/organic fertilizers, their quantity quality and method of using them, weather, temperature, etc. are also important.
Positive impact of Micro Nutrients on Soil
- Adequate Nitrogen supply ensures that the soil will have good access to potassium, phosphorous, magnesium and micronutrients such as iron, manganese and zinc.
- Copper and Boron – Improves the uptake of Nitrogen from plants.
- Molybdenum- Increases Nitrogen uptake and enhances phosphorus uptake.
- Calcium and Zinc – Improves the absorption of phosphorus and potassium.
- Sulfur- Improves the recovery of manganese and zinc.
- Manganese- Increases the receipt of copper.
Negative Impacts of Excess Micro Nutrients on Soil:
- Excessive Nitrogen intake reduces the absorption of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper.
- Excessive intake of phosphorus reduces the absorption of iron, manganese, zinc and copper.
- Excessive amounts of potassium reduce the use of magnesium and calcium.
- Excessive intake of calcium reduces the intake of zinc.
- Excessive iron intake reduces zinc absorption.
- An excessive amount of zinc reduces the absorption of manganese.
Zinc, Iron, Copper, Boron, Manganese and molybdenum important elements in the micronutrients required by plants. Crops require small amounts of these nutrients so they are called micronutrients, but this does not mean that these nutrients are not required by plants. Due to their deficiency in plant growth, the yield, production and quality of the crop are adversely affected. Due to their deficiency, good yield cannot be obtained even if Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are used in abundance.
This shows that micronutrients are of great importance for improving crop productivity. Whereas even today the information among farmers about the need and behaviour of micronutrients in crop production is very limited. In recent times, the central and state governments and major fertilizer companies have focused on its knowledge dissemination.
Status of micronutrients in the soils of India Along with the production of food grains in India, the use of micro-elementary fertilizers is continuously increasing. According to the research done by the Indian Soil Scientist, there is a deficiency of Among these elements, the lowest concentration of zinc has been observed in Indian soils.
The main reason for the deficiency of micronutrients in Indian soils is continuous intensive cultivation and introduction of hybrid varieties in different soils. Due to this, there is continuous removal of micro elements available in the soil.
If the soil is acidic low organic matter, sandy loam soil, high-low and unproductive, plants are not able to absorb nutrients in proper amount, due to which zinc, copper, iron and manganese are often found in the edible part of plants. The deficit is seen. Generally, three types of crop strains such as indigenous crop strains, high yielding strains and hybrid strains are grown in the fields by the farmers.
On the basis of research, it has been observed that the availability of micronutrients like zinc, copper, iron and manganese is more in the indigenous strains than the improved and hybrid strains.
Functions of micronutrients, symptoms and treatment of deficiency in crops
If it is acidic soil. The soil here is rich in manganese and iron in comparison to copper. Whereas the chemical elements boron and zinc (zinc) and deficiency have been found. In mainy of the state where mainly paddy and maize crops are cultivated in Kharif season, in which symptoms of zinc deficiency are visible. Whereas in Rabi season, gram and peas show boron deficiency and vegetable crops show signs of boron deficiency in cauliflower and tomato.
Basic Function of Boron:
Boron stimulates plant cell division and cell growth. It plays an important role in making carbohydrates. Also contributes to the transfer of carbohydrates.
Symptoms of Boron Deficiency Symptoms of boron deficiency are usually found in newly emerging leaves. The leaves become thick and hard and turn downwards, the stem dies. These symptoms are seen on paddy crop. Deficiency of boron causes internal rot in cauliflower and beet.
Blemish disease in tomato, brown disease in cauliflower, yellow fungus disease in lucerne, peak disease in tobacco and lemon fruits are affected by hardness. In cauliflower, beetroot and carrot, the top part of the plant dies and buds appear from the side and the leaves turn yellow.
Boron deficiency treatment
If the deficiency of boron in the soil is detected in the soil test, before sowing well rotted compost and 10 to 15 kg of compost. Gram. Borax fertilizer should be used per hectare or 14 kg after 10 days of sowing for its replenishment. Gram. Borax per hectare or 9 kg. Gram. Boric acid per hectare should be applied around the plants and mixed well in the soil.
If signs of deficiency in standing crop are visible, for foliar spray, 2-3 times spray of 0.3 per cent booze with 0.2 per cent borax or 0.125 per cent boric acid, 1.0 ml. Make a solution of Tippal and 12.0 gm calcium chloride per liter of water and do 2-3 sprays at an interval of 10-12 days.
Basic Function of Zinc:
Zinc participates as an active factor in many digestive enzymes in plants. It plays an important role in the formation of many hormones. Its role in plant reproduction is of great importance.
Zinc deficiency causes a reduction in stem length (shortening of the central part of the knot). Earrings come out late and harvest is delayed. Generally the size of old and new leaves become small and yellowish spots or white streaks become like and the tissue between the veins also die.
Zinc deficiency causes white bud disease in corn, after germination, the old leaves acquire a white color. The newly emerged leaves are usually pale yellow or white in color.
Khaira disease is seen in paddy. After 3-4 weeks of transplanting, the third or fourth leaves of paddy are first followed by cyanosis, then small spots of brown color, then later the spots get mixed with each other. The whole plant appears brownish-reddish.
Treatment of zinc deficiency
For the treatment of zinc deficiency, apply zinc sulphate 25 kg/ha before sowing. Use fertilizer or its 0.5 to 1.0 percent solution mixed with 0.25% lime should be sprayed. There is almost no deficiency of copper, manganese and molyvidum in the soil of Jharkhand state. The symptoms and treatment of deficiency of these elements are as follows:
Symptoms and treatment of manganese deficiency
Spots of dead tissue are formed on the front part of the upper young leaves. In the method of its use, before sowing, sprinkle manganese sulphate fertilizer at the rate of 40 to 60 kg / ha.
Symptoms and Treatment of Molybdenum Deficiency
The symptoms of its deficiency start from the older leaves and progress towards the front end. For its diagnosis in the central part of the veins, before sowing compost and sodium molybdate 1 kg / ha as fertilizer or sprinkle 0.3 percent solution on the crop.
Symptoms and treatment of copper deficiency
The edge and tip of the new leaves become chlorotic and twisted. In the absence of copper, the growing number of buds and buds become twisted more than usual. There is a solution to its diagnosis. Before sowing compost and copper sulphate 40 kg/ha. Fertilizer should be used or 0.2 percent solution should also be sprayed.
Most of the developing countries like India are witnessing deficiency of zinc and boron in the soil and crops, which are adversely affecting the yield and quality of the crop. Deficiency of micronutrients like zinc and iron is also affecting human health, making people malnourished. By using micronutrients after soil testing and showing signs of its deficiency in standing crops, farmers can increase crop production and provide nutritional security by increasing the quality of crop products.