High Yield Turmeric Farming Information Guide
Scientific name of Turmeric: Curcuma Launga
Family : Jijiwarecy
In India Turmeric is used in all auspicious works. It is a South important crop. Turmeric has a special status because it is also used as a medicine. Turmeric is also used for medicines because it contains anti-cancer and anti-viral elements. Rhizomes are used for its growth. India is the largest growing, consuming and exporting country in the world for Turmeric.
Some of the major Turmeric producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Karnataka and Kerala. Turmeric is a tropical spice cultivated for its tubers. It is used in the field of spice termerol for colouring, medicine and cosmetics. Turmeric is yellow from the tuber due to the element of curcumin. India has a monopoly on its produce. Our country Assam state is considered to be leading Turmeric production, the climate and soil there is suitable for the cultivation of Turmeric.
Turmeric contains a good amount of starch. Apart from this, 13.1 percent water, 6.3 percent protein, 5.1 percent fat, 69.4 percent carbohydrate, 2.6 percent fiber and 3.5 percent mineral salts are found in this.
Some of the Health benefits of eating Turmeric are as follows:
- Turmeric helps in increasing immunity in our body as well as is very effective for our body.
- Turmeric powder mixed with milk gives great relief in cold and flu.
- Use of Turmeric is beneficial in the disease.
- Very effective in jaundice disease.
- Turmeric also gives relief in herpes scabies itching.
- Disease can also be cured using Turmeric.
- Turmeric has anti-inflammatory and phlegm-quenching properties, which helps in keeping your digestion healthy and prevents hair loss.
- Due to the plantation and anti-inflammatory properties in Turmeric, it is helpful in healing all types of wounds and its inflammation etc.
- Turmeric has the property of balancing phlegm, due to which it is beneficial in all types of cough.
- Due to the hot properties of Turmeric, it helps in making the digestive system healthy by increasing the digestive fire, thereby getting rid of the problem of gas.
Suitable climate for Turmeric:
Turmeric is a spice crop, usually the area in which 1200 to 1400 mm is covered. Rain: Turmeric crop is obtained there in 100 to 120 days. There it is cultivated very well. It is grown in areas up to 1200 meters above sea level, but for Turmeric cultivation, areas from 450 to 900 meters altitude are best.
Turmeric is a tropical region crop. 30 to 35 degree cm for Turmeric. At the time of germination, 25 to 30 degree cm. 20 to 30 degree cm. Rhizome formation and 18 to 20 degree cm. Turmeric is good for thickening.
Important Variety for Turmeric:
|Name of variety||Yield|
|Palam Pitamber||332 q /ha|
|Palam Lalima||300 q/ha|
|C L 326||300 q/ha|
Soil suitable for Turmeric cultivation:
Loamy or black soil is good for its good yield. There should be a good drainage system in the Turmeric field. The soil should not be too acidic or too alkaline. Its pH should be 5 to 7.5. For the cultivation of Turmeric, loamy, alluvial, laterite soil, in which the amount of organic matter is high, is very good for it. Waterlogged soil is completely unsuitable for this.
Suitable time for sowing Turmeric:
The best time for planting Turmeric is April and May. Turmeric can be grown in all types of soil, but drainage should be good.
If there is a problem of nematode in the field, then plastic solarization should be done in the month of April itself, only then make the beds. Turmeric is planted from the rhizome, in which 20 to 25 quintals of rhizome is used per hectare.
The Turmeric field should be left open for a few days after deep plowing. Then after plowing the field by adding manure of cow dung, level the field and make the soil completely fine-grained. Now after light irrigation and deep ploughing, one-feet row beds should be sown.
Fertilizer application For Turmeric:
Why should we use tissue culture turmeric?
Generally the seeds of Turmeric are used for cultivation only. Use of tubers is a slow method for its rapid spread. Its tubers have the problem of a sluggish period, which comes in the way of germination. Therefore, its tubers germinate only during the rainy season. Also, only 5-6 plants are found from one tuber. In such a situation, the use of tissue culture method can get rid of the problem of sluggish periods.
Plants of good yielding varieties are produced on a large scale using this method. In this method, plants are grown on a large scale without making direct stem tissue, developed by Hasse and using the method certified by Nadgouda and others. They are prepared in the laboratory. This plant is healthier than the plants grown by tuber and the yield is also good.
Seed Rate For Turmeric:
The quantity of Turmeric seeds depends on the size of the rhizomes and the method of sowing. 20-25 quintal tubers are required for sowing only Turmeric crop, while 12-15 quintal per hectare is required for mixed crop. Seed tubers should be 7-8 cm long and have at least two eyes. If the tubers are large, they can also be sown by cutting them.
Seed treatment for Turmeric:
Before sowing the rhizomes should be sown by dissolving 2.5 grams of Thiram or Mancozeb drug per liter of water, after treating the seeds for 30-50 minutes and drying them in the shade. If there is a possibility of infestation of termites in the land, then the above mentioned chemicals should be treated by mixing 2 ml of chloropyriphos per liter of water.
Turmeric Seed Planting:
Pre-rain time is the right time for transplanting because irrigation is not required in subsequent rains. But if the rains are not favorable, it is necessary to irrigate the Turmeric before the field dries up. For sowing, 7 to 8 quintals of seed is required per hectare. After sowing, weeding and removing weeds in time allows the seeds of Turmeric to germinate quickly and the tuber develops well.
Since Turmeric is sown before the rains and irrigation is needed in the rainy season. On an average 10-15 days and in summer time it is very necessary to give weekly irrigation. Qualitative increase in yield has been achieved. When we use drip for turmeric plant you will get more yield with less water.
You can save water, save fertilizer and save labour cost. You need only to start pump and to watch your entire plant.You can apply irrigation with less amount of water as per plant size and plant critical condition as well plant water requirement.
Turmeric mixed cultivation:
In the plains, it is planted as a mixed crop with chillies and other crops, mainly in vegetable crops. It can also be planted with Arhar, Soyabean, Moong, Urad crops. In the form of intercropping, additional income is obtained from the benefits of mango, jackfruit, guava, chikoo, banana crop in the orchards.
Pest & Diseases of Turmeric Crop:
Various diseases can also occur at different stages of Turmeric crop. This affects the yield. Insects of ‘thrips’ disease destroy Turmeric leaves by sucking the juice, whereas in ‘leaf blotch’ disease yellow spots appear on the leaves of Turmeric and grow. Due to ‘leaf spot’ disease, brown spots start forming on Turmeric leaves. Due to this, the growth of Turmeric ie tuber stops and the yield decreases.
The ‘stem borer’ makes the stem of the Turmeric plant hollow in the early days itself. Due to this, the plant soon turns yellow and dries up. Rhizome thawing is also a disease of Turmeric. This happens because of water logging in the field. In this, the roots of the plant i.e. the tuber rot and get spoiled.
Few diseases here as below:
Leaf curl: Brown spots appear in the leaves of Turmeric, which later turn yellow or dark brown, to control leaf shrivel, spray Mancozeb at the rate of 0.2% per hectare. Leaf spot Turmeric‘s leaf spot is caused as a spot on the upper surface of the new leaf, this spot is irregular in shape and brown in the middle, after some time this spot obstructs the size of each other and becomes a big form. takes it. Which spreads to the whole leaf. For its prevention, spray of Genev 0.3 percent should be done.
Rhizome rot: This disease affects the stem attached to the plant by Pithium gramanicolum or Pythium ependermatum, water-like spots appear in the plants affected by this disease the rhizome does not develop due to the fall of the plant and also rot, the soil should be treated with fungicide to prevent rhizome rot. For its prevention, spray of Mancojeb 0.3 percent should be done.
Nematodes: Turmeric is mainly damaged by two types of nematotes. Disease free seed rhizome should be used for its prevention. The use of organic manure reduces the infestation of nematodes.
Stem borer: The stem borer is the most harmful pest of Turmeric, the larvae of the stem borer come on the stem and the small holes on the stem of the stem borer are the main symptoms of the stem borer. For its prevention Malathion 0.1 percent effectively at 21 days interval from July to October may be applied. Rhizome scale Rhizome scale damages the field first and then the stored rhizome. The mature female scales damage the rhizome. Its eaten rhizomes dry up and germination is also affected, for its treatment, rhizomes should be treated and stored.
Turmeric Digging and Cleaning:
Turmeric leaves start drying after 7-8 months of sowing. This is a sign that the tuber is fully ripe now. This is the time to dig and remove the tubers. After removing the tubers, the soil is cleaned by washing it with water. Then add a little sodium bicarbonate and boil the tubers in hot water.
This makes the color of Turmeric attractive. Now dry thoroughly in the sun, remove the peel of Turmeric and break the knots and then transport the produce to the market. Farmers who make Turmeric seeds themselves, dig up some part of the crop when the leaves dry up and drop.
Turmeric crop is harvested in 7 to 10 months. When the leaves turn yellow and start drying from above, it should be understood that the crop is ripe and we should dig Turmeric from under the soil. Before digging, walk around the field and test which plants are disease-prone, mark them and dig them separately and keep the rest for the seeds of a different year.
Processing of Turmeric:
Curing: It is cut to obtain dry Turmeric from fresh Turmeric, finger rhizome is separated from mother rhizome, mother rhizome is used as seed for next crop, in curing method fresh rhizome Boiled in water, but curing with hot water affects the aroma and color of Turmeric, and rhizomes currying in less hot water are bitter.
In the advanced method of curing clean 50 kg. The rhizome is called GI or MS, whose size is 0.9 m by 0.5-0.4 m, and its betel is filled with 100 liters of water, now this whole material is heated until it becomes soft. It is done and the heated finger is dried. The process of curing should be done 2-3 days after digging the rhizome. And if there is delay, then it should be kept under a tree in a cool place.
Drying: For drying Turmeric 5-7 cm. is made, a thin layer of Turmeric affects the color and aroma of Turmeric, Turmeric is covered during the night, but there is sufficient air circulation in it, 10-15 days is enough time for Turmeric to dry completely It happens that Turmeric is also dried in a cross flow notch chamber at 60°C.
Polishing: Polishing is done to make the top surface of Turmeric attractive in manual polishing the hard and unwieldy layer of Turmeric is removed from the finger advanced polishing technology uses a hand operated bezel In which Turmeric is rotated by placing it.
The value of thickening Turmeric depends on its color, to make the color of Turmeric attractive it is done by sprinkling of light water at the time of polishing.
For the cultivation of Turmeric, keeping in mind the requirement of soil climate, advanced seeds should be selected. Due to the properties of Turmeric, it is used in medicine and almost all types of vegetables. Raw Turmeric and dry powdered Turmeric can be used according to the use. Due to the demand of Turmeric, its cultivation may not always be a loss-making deal, yet keeping all the things and the market in mind, good profits can be obtained by cultivating Turmeric.