Soybeans farming project for beginners
Soyabean is the world’s most important oilseed and glandular crop. It is a multipurpose and one year plant crop. It is the number one oilseed crop of India. The botanical name of soyabean is Glycine max. It is rarely used as a total leguminacy. The origin of soyabean is the America. Its production is in America, Brazil, Argentina etc. Soyabean can be cultivated all over India. But first in the country is Madhya Pradesh second Maharashtra and third Rajasthan state.
Health benefits of Soyabean:
- Eating soybeans keeps the mental balance fine and the mind is sharp.
- Eating soybeans does not cause heart diseases
- Soybean controls the pressure
- Contains lecithin which is beneficial for liver
- Bones get stronger by eating soybeans
- Cancer can be prevented by eating soybeans
- Soybean is beneficial in controlling cholesterol
- Hypertension patients get relief by eating soybean
- Antioxidant elements are found in soybean seeds, which are very beneficial for the skin.
- Vitamin B, Vitamin C and minerals are found in soybean seeds, which are also helpful in hair growth.
Area and utility of Soyabean cultivation:
Soyabean is cultivated in about 108.834 lakh hectare area in our country and India ranks fifth in world production of soyabean. This crop has also contributed a lot in the yellow revolution. Soyabean contains 40 to 42 percent protein, 20 to 22 percent oil, 25 to 31 percent carbohydrates and about 5 percent minerals.
Soyabean oil is used to manufacture many industrial materials such as plywood goods, vitamins, paper rubber typewriter ribbons, soap varnishes, insecticides, chemicals, explosives, candle, inks, cosmetics, and food items such as milk, curd, butter, cheese from soyabeans can be made.
Climate and temperature for Soyabean:
Soyabean requires warm and moist climate. Temperature above 25° is considered good for good germination. Temperature of 40°C or more has a very bad effect on plant growth and seed quality. Flowering occurs less when the temperature is low. Soybean is a low photophilic plant. So short days and long nights are good. There should not be any water logging near its roots.
Soyabean crop can be grown easily in areas with moderate cold to moderately warm climate. Soyabean seeds and flowers take 7-10 days to germinate well at 15 degree centigrade temperature whereas it germinates in only 3-4 days at 21-32 degree centigrade temperature. Temperature has a special effect at the time of flowering of soyabean.
Flowering time increases by 2-3 days for every 10 degree growth from 23 to 25 degree centigrade. It is only when the temperature exceeds 38 degree centigrade that the growth development and seed properties of soyabean are adversely affected. The temperature drop down in the season of soyabean then the amount of oil decreases.
In most varieties of soyabeans flowering occurs only when the day is long. Flowering period, fruit pods, ripening period, the number of bales and the height of the plant have a great influence on the length of the day. Flowering occurs in soyabean only when the length of the day is less than the critical period, hence it is also called a plant of low light.
Field selection for Soyabean:
For its cultivation, light loamy soil whose pH is 6.6 to 7.5 so that maximum bales can be formed. Lime in acidic soils and gypsum in alkaline soils should be added so that more knots can be formed in the roots. Soybean plant does not have as clean root system as in other leguminous crops. In the upper 20 cm part of its roots, more roots are found here and there.
In deep lands one deep plowing with an earth turning plow should be carried out 2 to 3 times by harrowing. After this the field should be leveled, but keep in mind that there should be a slight slope in the field so that excess water does not remain in the field.
Loamy heavy fertile well drained soil is suitable for soyabean. The field should be well prepared for good growth of the crop. A deep plowing should be done during the summer season which reduces the number of insects diseases and weed seeds present in the soil and increases the water holding capacity.
The remains and roots of the crop sown before the field should be removed and well rotted manure or compost of dung should be mixed in 50 to 100 quintal per hectare of the field. After that ploughed the land twice with the cultivator and level the field after grinding it. Good preparation of the field is essential for more germination.
Moisture requirement for soyabean plant
Both high moisture and continuous low moisture conditions are harmful for good germination of plants in soyabean. For some time after germination there is no special harmful effect on the plants due to excess or low humidity. For a good crop at least 60-75 cm rainfall is required. If there is a lack of water 2 to 4 weeks before the flower buds develop then the vegetative growth of the plants will decrease. As a result a large number of flowers and pods drop rain during the ripening of beans.
Due to this many diseases get on the pods. Time of Failure Rainfall is harmful to soyabean.
Seed germination test for Soyabean
It is very important to test the germination of the seed. For germination test take 100 grains of seed in a piece of sack cloth soaked in water take two leaves of a newspaper from the lines moisten half of it keep 100 grains in the line and cover it with the same sprinkle water daily so that the moisture remains. Do the above work 2-3 times on different sacks of sackcloth. After 5-8 days lift the top layer and count the number of sprouts. Use as seed only when the percentage of germinated grains is 70 or more if low germination percentage is found calculate the quantity of seed in hectare as follows.
Fertilizer for Soyabean Farming:
Chemical Fertilizer 20:80:40:40 Kg NPKS use per hectare. At the time of sowing 175 kg. DAP and 72 kg of murate of potash per hectare by mixing it in the field and 40 kg of sulfur per hectare which gives more saplings. Soyabean is of great importance to the farmers because It is a profitable cash crop even after giving less fertilizer. It is also suitable in crop rotation method. Its crop increases soil fertility more than the requirement. Soyabean settles atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and provides 32-55 kg per hectare of nitrogen for the next crop.
Beneficial crops for intercropping:
Soyabean + Maize (four rows two rows)
Soyabean + Arhar (four rows two rows)
Soyabean + fever (four rows two rows),
Cotton + Soyabean (four rows + two Line)
Profitable crop rotation with Soyabean
Wheat Soyabean soil
Soyabean can be cultivated in all types of soils except very acidic alkaline and sandy soils. The soil should have good drainage and organic carbon content should also be good. Soyabean can be successfully grown mainly in loamy and black soils.
Soil erosion protection
To protect the land from erosion make bunds from soil, stone, gaviot structure and arrange for drainage. Make drains around the field at the place of the made by which the drain helps in collecting the soil flowing from the field along with enrichment in the land.
Time and duration of sowing:
Soyabean should be sown with the onset of monsoon at least 10 cm deep inside the soil at the time of sowing. There should be enough moisture to the depth of the best time for sowing soyabean is from the third week of June to the first week of July. Sowing 30 to 45 cm in rows by tying a nail with a seed drill or plow and the number of plants should be 4.50 lakh per hectare. Adequate moisture is essential for good germination. The duration of soyabean crop is about 100 to 120 days.
For proper germination seed should be sown at the rate of 75-80 kg seed per hectare of small and medium grain varieties and 100 kg seed per hectare for coarse grained varieties. We should use 75 to 80 kg in kharif and 100-120 kg in rabi season.
Before sowing soyabean seeds do seed treatment with fungicidal drugs to prevent soyabean from getting sick. Seed treatment is a cheap and simple way of disease control. By this action the germination of seeds is good fast and uniform. The plants grow healthy and well due to which the seed yield also increases.
The following types of medicines can be used in seed treatment. For this treating the seeds with Thiram or Carbendazim, Metalalgyl, Carboxin, Mancozeb, Propiconazole, Tricyclozol, etc at 3 grams per kg of seeds prevents these diseases like seed thawing, – plant is agamari myrothecium and leaf spot.
Seed treatment with bacterial culture: After this it is necessary to treat the seeds with bacterial culture. For this make a solution of 250 grams of jaggery in one liter of hot water and after cooling 500 grams of Rhizobium culture and 500 grams of PS. Add compost at the rate of culture per hectare. The solution mixed with culture should be mixed lightly with the seeds then dried in the shade and sown immediately.
Some important variety of Soyabean are as follow:
- NRC 37
- Pratap Soya (RKS 45)
- MACS 1188
- RKS 24
- JS 97-52
- RAUS 5
- MAUS 81
- MAUS 32
- Raj soya 18
- Pant Soya 1480 (PS – 1480)
- JS 335
Soyabean should always be sown in rows. Seed and manure should be applied separately so that germination will not be affected and the depth of seed should be 3-4 cm should not be kept more than
Soyabeans Sowing methods
- Spraying Method
In some areas farmers mix soyabean seeds and manure after spraying and then use disc harrows to flatten them. This is a faulty method of sowing soyabean which has the following disadvantages and decline in production.
The quantity of seeds is more. The soil is not able to absorb the rain water because due to the leveling of the floor, the water goes to it.
Inhibition of weeding-pesticide spraying soil moisture is not conserved due to the runoff of water from the surface of the land. Therefore during drought there is an adverse effect on the crop.
Row sowing method: Soyabean seeds are always planted in rows 45 cm from line to line. And plant to plant 4-5 cm. It should be sown only because it is a simple, cheap and suitable method, the following benefits from this method are as follows
- The seed falls in the right place and germination is correct. The number of plants is reasonable.
- Seed quantity is less.
- Facilitates weed control and plant protection
By filling water in the well the soil absorbs moisture due to which there is no adverse effect on the crop even if there is no rain for a long time
Weir groove method:
This is the best method of sowing soyabeans. In this method of sowing soyabean sowing is done on the ridges and the distance between two ridges is 15 cm. A deep groove is made and the soil is diverted to the side of the crop plant. Following are the advantages of this method
- By this method the crop gets moisture during scanty rainfall in Kharif season.
- The lack of is not felt.
- Due to sowing of seeds on bunds there is no possibility of falling of plants during heavy rain and strong wind.
- Soyabean crop is not affected due to long gap in scanty rainfall and high rainfall.
- At the time of excessive rain, extra rain water from these drains outside the field.
Irrigation and Drainage for Soyabean crop:
Soyabean Kharif crop does not require irrigation. Irrigation may be required if there is no rain for a long time. Critical stage occurs in soyabean at the time of flowering and pod formation. Irrigation is necessary when there is no rain at this stage. Excessive rainfall is also harmful for the crop. Therefore, proper management of water drainage is very important.
Soyabean plant grows slowly in the initial stage. Therefore, there is a loss of up to 25-70 percent due to fast growing weeds in the field. Therefore, weeds should be prevented from growing in the field for 40-45 days after sowing. For this after 20 days and 40 days after sowing weeding should be done twice to remove weeds from the field.
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Yield of Soyabean:
From cultivation practices of Soysbean you can get Per acre yield of it is 13-15 quintal per acre or you can get 35 40 quintal per ha.