Role of NPK for the Plants
Fertilizers are chemicals used to increase the yield of crops that are used to aid in the overall development of plants. Fertilizers can be of many types. It is manufactured as an important component used by plants. It can be in solid and liquid also. It can also be used by mixing it directly in the soil or by spraying the liquid on the plants.
Most of the Fertilizers are given to the plants in the order of growth, which in a way act as vitamins for the plants. Fertilizer adopts virtually every process that helps in the growth of plants. It also helps in proper water and air absorption in the roots of plants. It artificially creates a component in the soil, which helps in the growth rate of plants in a short period of time.
Read More: Importance of Micro Nutrients for Crop Production.
What are Macro Nutrients?
As we all know the main elements in Fertilizers are ‘N’, ‘P’ and ‘K’ – the basic elements necessary for plant growth – Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium. Which help in the development of plants.
Role of NPK
One of them is Nitrogen, which works by increasing the plant’s ability to produce new stems, flowers or fruits. It also increases the speed at which it will grow and improves the quality and appearance of foliage.
Phosphorus, another nutrient, helps plants produce all that good organic matter like oils and starches which is great for building big, strong root systems. Phosphorus also helps the plant develop chlorophyll, which allows it to convert solar energy into chemical energy that processes food in plants.
Finally, potassium helps build proteins, fight diseases and, like Phosphorus, is essential in the process of photosynthesis. Plenty of Phosphorus along with potassium helps in producing healthy flowers and fruits.
Read More: Soil Testing Importance & Usefullness
How plants use Nutrients?
All plants need to work together to produce a healthy plant, if only one of these valuable nutrients is missing or your plant will not be in good condition to produce the highest quality fruit or flowers.
The growth and production of crops and vegetables depends on the quality and fertility of the soil. To get continuous good production of crops and vegetables, it is necessary for the farmers to have knowledge of the soil fertility of the fields. If farmers get a soil test done, it can help to know which nutrient is lacking.
Plants absorb nutrients easily when nutrients are available in the soil in proper quantity and in accessible condition. When there is a shortage of nutrients in the soil and crops of the fields, they are replenished from outside. To make up for this deficiency, manure or Fertilizers are used.
In fact, soil testing is the only way to get information about the fertility of the fields and their fertility. By adopting the process of soil testing, farmers can get rich yield from their fields. It is the easiest and cheapest way to get maximum yield.
Soil testing gives information about the properties and defects of the land along with the measures to remove them. In order to maintain the fertility of the fields and their fertility, it is necessary to conduct soil test at the interval of every three years to protect the soil from defects and disorders and to get full yield.
Read More: Role of EC, pH & NPK for Crop Production.
First of all, on the basis of the report received from the soil test, information about the amount of chemical Fertilizers required per acre / per hectare in a particular land, proper method and timely use is available.
Following the recommendations given in the soil test report maintains the balance of nutrients available in the soil and increases the fertility of the soil. This saves chemical Fertilizers as well as provides abundant production. Apart from this, there are many other benefits from soil testing.
Essential elements requirement for the crop
As we all know that there are 17 essential nutrients for the growth of plants. They are: Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Copper, Molybdenum, Boron, Chlorine and Cobalt. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium are needed by plants in large quantities. Whereas calcium, magnesium and sulfur are needed in small amounts.
You will not be surprised to know that due to not using the recommended balanced amount of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Sulfur in crop production, there can be a reduction in the productivity of the crop by 25 to 60 percent.
Read more: How to do Soil Nutrient Management With Sensor.
Therefore, the use of chemical Fertilizers of these essential nutrients recommended on the basis of soil test or recommended by scientists for crops and vegetables in balanced quantity, it is very important to use chemical Fertilizers.
Chemicals for Fertilizers
Chemical Fertilizers include Nitrogen-rich Fertilizers like urea, Phosphorus-rich Fertilizers like DAP/SSP/ Potash bearing Fertilizers like M.O.P. Balanced treatment of recommended amount of Sulfur containing Fertilizers like Phospho Gypsum / Sulfur compound Fertilizer etc are very beneficial.
Give half the amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer at the time of sowing and apply the remaining half dose once/two or three times in the standing crop. Apply full dose of recommended Phosphorus S, Potash. Remaining Sulfur and others containing Fertilizers at the time of sowing of the concerned crop.
Important crop & their NPK requirements.
|2||Paddy (Medium Land)||174||250||88||34|
|3||Paddy (Low Land)||260||375||130||57|
|4||Paddy (Medium Upland)||326||438||152||150|
|5||Wheat for timely sowing||326||375||130||57|
|6||Wheat for Late sowing||260||375||130||57|
|7||Wheat for Non Irrigable Land||260||375||130||57|
|12||Jwar / Ramdana||130||250||88||34|
|1||Arhar / Urad / Mung||54||50||108||42|
|2||Kulthi / Ricebean / Snake Gourd||44||250||87||34|
|3||Bengal Gram / Chana||54||312||108||42|
|6||Lentil / Masoor||44||312||108||42|
|8||Tur / Arhar / Mungfali||33||188||65||25|
|9||Mungfali / Groundnut||54||312||108||34|
|14||Tisi for Irrigable Land||65||125||44||34|
|15||Tisi for Non Irrigable Land||130||188||65||34|
|16||Tori / Rai||108||157||54||42|
|17||Sunflower Rain dependent||87||312||108||44|
|12||Carrot / Radish||217||312||108||100|
|16||Cauliflower / Cabbage||260||375||130||100|
|17||Cauliflower / Cabbage (Hybrid)||434||938||325||167|
|18||Bottke Gourd / Pumpkin / Sponge Gourd||195||282||98||75|
|19||Bitter Gourd/ Cucumber / Ridge Gourd||174||250||87||57|
|21||Turmeric / Ginger||217||375||102||100|