Papaya Farming methods for Beginners
Papaya is mainly grown in our country to eat its fruits. Most of the people in India believe that papaya is a delicious, healthy and digestive fruit, but probably do not know why it is so digestible? The most important factor in the digestion of papaya is the presence of an enzyme called papain in it. Vitamin “A” is present in abundance in papaya. There is also about 60 mg of vitamin “C” per 100 grams of papaya. Apart from this, 0.80% protein, 0.1% fat and some amount of vitamin “B” carbohydrates and mineral traces such as iron, phosphorus and calcium are also found in it.
Latest Agricultural Techniques for Commercial Papaya Cultivation
More profit can be earned from papaya cultivation as compared to other traditional crops, provided it is cultivated with modern and well done. With the selection of good seeds, timely irrigation, timely fertilization and timely weeding, a lot of profit can be earned from the crop.
Required climate for papaya
Papaya can be cultivated on a commercial scale throughout India except the cold regions (Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh etc.). Suitable climate for papaya cultivation has been found in all the southern states as well as the whole of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, West Bengal and some parts of Rajasthan. By the way, papaya cultivation has been done on a small scale in these states. Papaya cultivation can be done even in high frost areas with some special precautions.
Land Required For Papaya
Papaya can be cultivated in almost all types of soils, provided the drainage of water from the ground is quite easy and the situation of water logging does not arise. Papaya should not be cultivated in more acidic and more alkaline soils. Generally, soil of 6.5 pH to 7.5 pH is suitable for its cultivation. Papaya should not be cultivated in waste lands.
Best Time to Plant Papaya
The best time to plant papaya is in the months of October and November. For this, seed in the month of August and September is sown. The months of February and March are also good for planting papaya. For these seeds are sown in October.
To develop more better seedling you can use cocopit & vermicopost in seedling tray. You should keep in mind that there must be optimum moisture in the tray for better germination. It takes 30 to 35 days for proper germination and growth of Papaya.
Important Varieties: Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Nanha, Pusa Giant, Arka Prabhat, Red Lady, Taiwan 786, Ranchi Local.
Planting of saplings is usually done in three ways –
- Planting by digging a pit
- Planting by digging a groove
- Planting seedlings directly in the field
- Planting by digging pit – 30 days after planting
First the preparation of the field should be started. In the field, pits of the size of 1.5 feet x 1.5 feet x 1.5 feet should be dug at a distance of 5 feet by 5 feet. The pits should be in one line. The pits should be in a line. In each pit, 10 kg of cow dung, 10 kg of leaf manure, 50 grams of BHC powder and 100 grams of super phosphate should be mixed well with the soil, making the pit a plate and connecting each other with the drains.
Each pit should be made into a plate and connected to each other with the drains in which it should be easy to give water. Then in each pit, two saplings should be planted in each pit by bringing saplings from the nursery. The distance between the two plants in the pit should be 20 cm. polythene before planting
Irrigation: It must be always keep in mind that Drip Irrigation Method is best irrigation method for the irrigation practices in Papaya. It has several benefits for doing this. It simply deducts water wastages, saving of fertilizers, Saving of labour in terms of irrigation. One of the main reason that uniform and applicable required amount of water is only allowed to flow mean controlled way of irrigation. By this method you can save your plant in drought prone areas also and it apply only that amount of water by thet there is no water logging issues.. The best spacing of papaya is 1.8m x 1.8m.
Mulch with Papaya: Definitely for proper water utilization you can use mulch in your plot also. It gives saves water from the root zone of the plant. It can suppress the weed growth of the plant. It can helps to protect soil moisture and saves water for the irrigation.
It should be torn apart and the same plant should be planted in the pit along with the soil. Planting should be done usually in the evening. If the day is cloudy then planting can be done during the day also. Irrigation should be given immediately after planting.
After about 3-4 months, when the plants start flowering, leaving only 8% of the male plants in the entire field, all the remaining male plants should be cut. Male plants bear dangling flowers like tall twigs and they do not bear fruit, there should be only one healthy plant in a pit and only 8% male plants should remain in the whole field. If the farmer has planted a bisexual papaya, then the male plant will not come on its own. Therefore, no cutting is required and in case of bisexual papaya, only one plant is planted per pit.
- Planting of saplings by digging a drain If the cultivation is being done on a large scale, then 1.5 feet wide and 1.5 deep drains should be dug row by row at a distance of 5 by 5 feet. Then one foot of cow dung should be filled in these drains. Then by sprinkling BHC powder or furadan in the soil, the drain should be filled with soil and plants should be planted from nursery at a distance of 2-2 feet in each line. After 3 to 4 months all male plants except 8% male plants should be cut. If except the bisexual papaya plant, all the male plants should be cut. If bisexual papaya has been planted, then the plant should be planted at a distance of 55 feet in each groove.
- Planting saplings directly in the field In this method, 12 to 15 trolleys per acre of cow dung and 50 kg BHC powder should be plowed twice or thrice in the entire field. Then after making 5 feet wide beds, papaya plant should be planted in these beds at a distance of 2 feet. After three to four months, all the male plants should be cut except 8% of the male plants. If bisexual papaya is planted, then the seedlings should be planted at a distance of 5-5 feet.
Irrigation Papaya cultivation does not require much irrigation. Light irrigation should be given every 10 days in winter and 4 days in summer. Irrigation should be done by making plates in the field. Water should be given in small quantity and on time. Water should not stagnate for a long time around the roots and stem of papaya, otherwise there is a possibility of rotting disease to the root and stem.
The papaya garden should be kept clean. Grass and weeds should be removed from the garden continuously. Before the rainy season, one feet of soil should be applied on the stem of the papaya. If weeds keep coming out on time then the crop increases significantly and the outbreak of diseases and pests is also very less.
To get a good papaya crop, adequate amount of fertilizers should be given at the right time. After planting, giving 50 grams of urea, 200 grams of superphosphate and 100 grams of murate of potash to each plant in every two months gives good papaya crop.
Fertilizer should be given by digging 2 – 3 inches deep soil at a distance of 1.5 feet from the stem and mixing it well. Irrigation must be done immediately after applying manure. In areas where there is a shortage of zinc, before planting papaya, 10 kg per acre of zinc sulphate must be given at the time of plowing. Fertilizer is not required in male plants.
- Major diseases of papaya and their prevention Stem and root rot – If the leaves of papaya are turning yellow, then it should be seen whether it is suffering from root and stem rot disease. If the stem and root are rotting and rotting at a depth of 3-4 inches from the ground, then making a solution of 0.3% blightox (3 grams in 1 liter of water) should be applied on the affected part. It can also be applied by making a solution of 11:10 of tutia, lime and water (1 kg of tutia, 1 kg of lime and 10 liters of water). By doing this process two or three times in every 10 days, the disease goes away. After every two and a half months of planting saplings, 0.1% solution of blightox or 1 150 solution of tutia, lime and water is applied till the root after soaking the stem, then the chances of getting this disease are greatly reduced. If the plants start rotting in the nursery, then 0.2% of blightox or 1:1:50 solution of tutia, lime and water should be sprayed with the machine.
- Infestation of Red Pests – If papayas are infested with red colored or other pests, then Nuvacron 0.1% (1 gram per liter) solution should be sprayed. Pest control can also be done by spraying Thiodan and Dithane M-45.
- Viral disease In this disease the leaves start becoming rounded by shrinking. Plants affected by this disease should be uprooted and taken away and burnt or buried.
Major Precautions to be taken in Papaya Cultivation . One foot of soil must be put on the stem before the rainy season.
- When there is a possibility of frost, the field should be irrigated from the evening itself and smoke should be kept in the whole field. The nursery plants should be irrigated and covered with sackcloth etc.
- Fertilizer should be given at fixed time and irrigation must be done immediately after applying fertilizer.
- The field should be clean and there should be no weeds in it.
- As soon as the effect of diseases is seen, medicines etc. should be started immediately.
The fruits begin to ripen from about the eighth month after planting. One month before the ripening of fruits, milk starts coming out. Unripe papayas should be wrapped in paper and straw and filled in baskets and transported to the market. Generally 600 quintal to 800 quintal fruit is produced per acre. It has been found up to 900 quintals in advanced species.
Cost Economics of Papaya cultivation.
|Economics of Papaya cultivation under Micro Irrigation (1 Ha)|
|1||Primary tillage operations||Tractor / Rotavator||4||1000||Hrs||4000|
|2||Seed & seedling preparations||Seed + Vermi Compost + cocopit + Plastic Bag||1||33500||Set||33500|
|4||FYM / Compost||Composting||10||2500||Trolly||25000|
|6||Conventional Fertilizer||DAP + Urea + Potash||1||6500||Set||6500|
|7||Insecticides, Pesticides & Spraying||1||7000||Set||7000|
|8||Irrigation & Electricity 1st year||1||4500||Set||4500|
|Total Variable cost||122000|
|Investment on MIS||110000.00|
|a||Interest on MIS value @ 18%||19800.00|
|b||Depreciation @ 10%||11000.00|
|c||Maintenance @ 5%||5500.00|
|Total Fixed Cost||36300.00|
|Total Cost (A+B)||158300.00|
|Note: This is a tentative rate considered.|
|It can be 2nd and 3rd year yield with less expenditures.|