Mustard Cultivation Project for Beginners
Mustard is counted in India’s three major oilseed crops (soybean, groundnut and mustard), which is mainly responsible for the Yellow Revolution in the country. Mustard is the main oilseed crop grown in Rabi. It is cultivated in rain fed areas with irrigated and protected moisture.
Also seed oil and oil cake can be used as animal feed because they have a cooling effect, due to which they prove helpful in the prevention of many diseases. Its cake contains about 4 to 9 percent nitrogen, 25 percent phosphorus and 15 percent potash. it happens. Therefore, in many countries it is used as a fertilizer. Its dried stems are used as fuel. The amount of oil in mustard seeds is found to be 30 to 48 percent.
Climatic requirement: Mustard is cultivated in India in autumn. This crop requires 18 to 25°C temperature. During flowering for mustard crop, it is not good to have rain, high humidity and cloudy atmosphere in the atmosphere, if this type of weather occurs, then there is more outbreak of mahu or chapa on the crop.
Soil Mustard cultivation can be done in sandy to heavy clay soils. But sandy loam soil is most suitable. This crop can tolerate mild alkalinity. But shouldn’t be.
- Birsa Shivam This crop is ready in 105 days. This crop is suitable for irrigated area.
- RH 30: Wheat, gram and which are suitable for cultivation in both irrigated and irrigated conditions. This variety is also suitable for late sowing. The crop matures in 130 to 135 days and its grains are coarse.
- T 59 (Varuna) This medium stature variety has a maturity period of 125 to 140 days. Its pods are broad, small and the grains are of thick black color. Its yield is irrigated 15 to 18 quintals / hectare. The oil content in it is 36 percent.
- Pusa Bold The medium stature variety of this variety is full of pods and the pods are thick. It matures in 130 to 140 days and gives 20 to 25 quintals per hectare. The oil content in it is found to be 37 to 38 percent.
- Bio 902 (Pusa Jaikisan) The incidence of white roly wilting diseases is less in this variety than in other varieties. Its yield is 180 to 200 qtl per hectare h ripening period of 130 to 140 days. The oil content in it is 38 to 40 percent.
- Vasundhara (RH. 9304) Plants of this variety sown on time and in irrigated area are more than 180 to 190 in height. The yield of this variety ripening in 130 to 135 days is 25 to 27. quintal per hectare. This variety is resistant to stunting and pod cracking and is moderately resistant to white roly.
- Aravalli (RN 393) This variety has medium height, matures in 135 to 138 days. The oil content in this is 42 percent and the average yield of this variety, which flowers in 55-60 days, is 22 to 25 quintals per hectare. It is moderately resistant to white roly.
- Jagannaya (BSL5) This variety is suitable for irrigated area for timely sowing. It is medium height from 165 to 170 cm. Ripening is ready in 125 to 130 days. The oil content in this is 30 to 40 percent and the average yield is 20 to 22 quintals per hectare. This variety is resistant to leaf spot disease and resistant to white-style d fall and pod cracking.
- Laxmi (RH 8812) This is useful for timely sowing and irrigated area. This variety matures in 140 to 150 days. Its pods are thick and do not crack when cooked. The grain is black and thick. The oil content is 40 percent. And the average yield is 22 to 25 quintals per hectare.
- Swarna Jyoti (RH 9820) This late sowing variety is suitable for irrigated areas. Its plants are medium tall. Flowering in 135 to 140 days, this variety matures from 135 cm to 140 cm in 135 to 140 days. The oil content in it is 39 to 42 percent. Its average yield is 13 to 15 quintals per hectare. It is resistant to cross-drop and pod disintegration, moderately tolerant to frost and moderately resistant to white roly.
- Ashirwad (from RK) This variety has been found suitable for late sowing from 15th October to 15th November. Its plant is 130 cm. 140 cm high. The oil content in it is 39 to 42 percent. This variety is resistant to stunting and pod disintegration, moderately resistant to frost. It matures in 120 to 130 days and gives 13 to 15 quintal per hectare yield.
Land preparation for mustard
Preparation for cultivation The loamy and sandy land is best for mustard cultivation. Mustard requires friable soil. For this a deep plowing should be done after kharif harvesting. And after that it is beneficial to plow three to four times with a plow.
After ploughing, the field should be prepared by planting a pad. If the infestation of termites and other insects is high in the field, then at the time of last ploughing, 25 kg of Kunalphos 1.5 percent powder is applied for control. should be given at the rate of per hectare. Also to increase production 2 to 3 kg. Azotobacter and PAB 50 kg of culture Mixed with rotted cow dung manure or vermiculture, it should be applied in the complete field from last tillage.
Seed rate for Mustard
In dry area 4 to 5 kg seed per hectare is sufficient in irrigated area. Before sowing the seed should be treated with 25 gm Mancozeb per kg. Treat at seed rate.
Time and method of sowing: The suitable temperature for sowing mustard varies from 25 to 26 °C. Mustard should be sown from 15th September to 15th October. In irrigated areas, sowing can be done till the end of October. Mustard should be sown in rows. Row-to-row distance should be less than 30 and the distance of plants should also be kept 10. In the irrigated area, the depth of the seed is kept up to 5 cm. The depth in the unirrigated area should be kept according to the humidity.
Manure and Fertilizer Management: For irrigated crops, prepare the field by putting 8 to 10 tons of decomposed manure per hectare in the field 3 to 4 weeks before sowing and 4 to 5 tons of decomposed manure per hectare before the rain in the rainfed area. should be put in After a couple of years, the field should be ploughed by spreading it evenly. 80 kg nitrogen in irrigated areas, 30 to 40 kg. Apply phosphorus and 375 kg gypsum or 60 kg sulfur powder per hectare. Half of nitrogen and full amount of phosphorus should be given at the time of sowing and half at the time of first irrigation.
Irrigation – No doubt best method for irrigation is Sprinkler method. Sometime its height may reached upto 1.5 meter so riser for the sprinkler or extension tube and stakes for the minisprinkler must use for the height of 1.5 meter length.
In normal irrigation 4-5 irrigations are sufficient for mustard cultivation. If there is a shortage of water, then four irrigations at the time of first sowing, at the time of second branch formation, 25-30 days after sowing), third at the time of flowering (45-50 days) and last irrigation at the time of pod formation (70-80 days later). Is performed. If water is available, it is beneficial to irrigate at the time of grain ripening, 100-110 days after sowing. Irrigation should be done by fountain method.
Crop rotation with Mustard: Crop rotation plays an important role in increasing yield, maintaining soil fertility and reducing insects, diseases and weeds in the soil. For mustard cultivation, in the western region, moong-mustard, guar-mustard, bajra-mustard one-year crop rotation and bajra-mustard-mung / guar-mustard two-year crop rotation can be used. In rainfed areas, where the crop is grown only in Rabi, gram can be grown after mustard.
Various types of weeds like cowpea, eagle, peacock, pygmy etc. damage the mustard crop. To control them, weeding should be done 25 to 30 days after sowing.
After this, second weeding should be done after 50 days. To control weeds growing along with mustard, 3 liters of Pedimechalan available in the market should be used 2 days after sowing.
Harvesting – Mustard crop is ready in 120 to 150 days. Harvesting at the right time is necessary in this crop because if harvesting is not done on time, then the beans start cracking and the yield decreases by 5 to 10 percent. Harvesting should be done as soon as the color of the leaves and pods of the plant starts turning yellow.
At the time of harvesting, take special care that the seeds of the verminous weed are not mixed with the fruit, otherwise the contaminated oil of this crop will cause a disease called dropsy in humans. Cut the twigs only and tie them in bundles and transport them to the threshing floor and after drying the crop for a few days, when the condition of proper moisture comes, the grains should be filled in sacks and kept in the storehouse.