Multiple cropping and crop rotation in organic farming
Organic farming management is such an integrated way where all the components and systems of farming are related to each other. In organic farming all the systems work for each other. Biologically healthy and active soil is the source of nutrition for crop plants. All these systems control the biodiversity and pests of the farm.
Crop rotation and multi-cropping farming systems maintain the sources of soil quality and health. Livestock ensures coordination, productivity and sustainability. In particular, organic management emphasizes on optimum utilization and productivity of local resources. Organic Management Mixed crop production is the basic basis of organic farming.
In organic management, several types of crops are sown together in a mixed form or on the same land at different times. In each season, care has to be taken that pulse crops should be sown in about 40 percent quantity. Mixed crop production not only leads to better photosynthesis but also regulates the demand for nutrients, especially nitrogen, among different plants.
Different types of plants take their nutrients from different depths of the soil. Pulse crops collect nitrogen from the atmosphere in large quantities and also provide it to their companion crops. Deep-rooted plants take up their nutrients from the depths and bring them back to the soil floor in the form of fallen leaves from the tree.
Thus it is to be noted that the nutrients which go back into the soil are reabsorbed by the deep rooted plants and brought to the top surface of the soil. It also helps in preventing soil erosion. Farmers can choose mixed crops according to the season and their requirement. Which gives strength to organic farming.
Before choosing mixed crops in organic farming, it is necessary to keep in mind that plants also have their own likes and dislikes. As there is good coordination between maize, beans and cucumber, tomato crop grows well with onion and marigold crop. The crop of beans does not harmonize with onions. Thus special attention is required in the selection of plants.
8 to 10 types of crops can be planted in the entire field at all times. About 2 to 4 types of crops can be taken in each plot / plot. One of these crops must be pulses. If only one crop is being taken in a plot, then plant another crop in the plot adjacent to it.
For maintaining diversity, pest control and domestic use, spread vegetables at the rate of 50-150 plants per acre in the entire field and planting marigold at the rate of 100 plants per acre also creates biodiversity and helps in pest control. They can be grown along with pulses and green leaf vegetable crops for better productivity of high nutritional demand crops (like sugarcane).
Crop rotation is very important for making soil fertility and increasing the efficiency of natural bacteria. Taking different crops on the same land is called crop rotation. For organic management, adopt 3- to 4-year crop rotation. Sowing of pulse crops should be done before and after sowing of high nutritional crops.
Inclusion of pest host and friendly insect host crops in crop rotation helps in the prevention of soil borne diseases and insect pests. This also keeps weed growth under control. It also helps in increasing the fertility and productivity of the soil. The soil structure improves due to different types of roots of plants in crop rotation.
Pulses should be given an important place in the crop rotation. Along with cereal crops and vegetables, pulse crops should be sown as a co-crop. Pulses should be taken before and after high nutritional crops. When the age of the plant is completed, the remaining residue should be cut and buried in the soil again.
Some of the important advantages of crop rotation are as follows:
As we know that not all plants have the same nutrient requirements and different types of plants get nutrition from different levels. Different types of roots improve soil structure. The growth of insect pests is prevented and
In the changing crop cycle, the growth of weeds can also be controlled.
Organic farming is more profitable than conventional farming and the cost is very less. The following crop rotations have been recommended on the basis of the tests conducted at several centres.
Soyabean – Berseem / Mustard / Chana / Cabbage – Cauliflower,
Peas and Maize, Garlic on Millet
Rice – Wheat / Potato / Mustard / Lentil
Groundnut- Rabi Jowar, Soyabean- Durum Wheat,
Potato, Moong, Chilli + Cotton and Maize – Moong
Soybean- Durum Wheat Mustard / Moong / Isabgol
Rice- durum wheat berseem, rice potato okra and
Rice Garlic, Jowar- Guar-Oat- Moong
Maize Cotton, Chilli Onion and Brinjal – Sunflower
Jowar – peas – ladyfinger
Carrot/Rice (Pre Kharif) Rice (Kharif), Potato/Rice (Pre Kharif), Rice (Kharif), Tomato/Rice-Rice (Pre Kharif), Rice (Kharif), French Bean/Rice (Pre Kharif) rich and vibrant soil condition.
The organic carbon level in a fertile and healthy soil should be between 0.8 to 1.5%. Adequate amount of dry, semi-decomposed and fully decomposed organic matter should always be there for the use of micro flora and fauna throughout the period.
The total microorganism (bacteria, fungi and actomycetes) content should be more than 1×108 per gram. There should be at least 3.4 earthworms per cubic foot. Insects such as moths and small ants, etc., with a short life span, should also be present in sufficient quantity.
Preparation of Beejamrut for seed treatment
Take five kg of fresh cow dung, put it in a cloth bag and keep it in a vessel and fill the vessel with water. This will filter all the elements/parts present in the cow dung and come into the water. 50 g in another vessel. Take lime and mix it in one liter of water.
After 12 to 16 hours press and squeeze the cloth bag and mix five liters of cow urine with cow dung extract, 50 liters of pure soil of grajangal, lime water and 20 liters of plain water. Leave this mixture for 8.12 hours, after which filter the entire mixture. Use the filtered mixture for seed treatment.
Soil enrichment through organic manure
During the composition, transformation or transformation of the soil, you can say that organic fertilizers, vermicompost (earthworm manure), green manure and organic fertilizers (culture bacteria) increase the fertility of the soil. It helps in maintaining fertility at the initial stage.
These organic inputs act as food for the soil. Healthy soil with fully nourished fossils fulfills all the nutrient requirements of the crops. Plant residues, dung manure, cultured compost, biodynamic compost, cow pet-pit compost and earthworm manure are the main organic inputs.
The main ones are organic inputs obtained and purchased from other sources. Inedible oilseed cake, poultry manure, organic fertilizers, rock phosphate, lime etc. make the soil alive and also increase the water holding capacity.
Compost, vermi-compost, animal dung-urine and crop residues should be the main sources of nutrition for gliricidia and other plant residues on the ridges of the fields. Biofertilizers and concentrated manures, such as oil cake, poultry manure, vegetable market waste compost, bio-fortified manure, effective micro-organism manure, etc. should be used in proper quantity. The use of manure in excess quantity should be avoided.
Crop rotation and multi-cropping ensure better utilization of resources. The amount of manure is decided on the basis of the type of crop and the requirement of nutrients for different crops.
The use of liquid manure is necessary to maintain the activity of micro-organisms. For all types of crops, it is necessary to use liquid manure 3-4 times. Wamwash compost, cow urine etc. are very good growth stimulants and are used as a spray on leaves. After 25-30 days of sowing, 3-4 four applications ensure good production.