General Description of Jackfruit:
Scientific name of Jackfruit: Artocarpus heterophyllus
Jackfruit whether raw or cooked it is considered useful in both ways hence its demand is high in the market. Its farming is done in UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and many states of South India. Jackfruit plant gives production for many years so the field should be well prepared. For its cultivation the field should be leveled after doing good ploughing once.
By eating of jackfruit there are many health benefits like as follows:
- Jackfruit having very less in calories but plenty of potassium so it makes our heart healthy.
- By eating jackfruit blood circulation is good in our body and we can stay away from heart diseases.
- Jackfruit helps our body a lot in dealing with digestion and ulcer problems.
- Vitamin A found in jackfruit is best for our eyes
- The milky liquid coming out of jackfruit leaves is useful when applied to various types of wounds, swollen and torn limbs.
- The calcium and magnesium found in jackfruit strengthens the bones and increases immunity in the body to fight against many diseases.
Soil requirement for Jackfruit:
The cultivation of jackfruit can be done in any type of soil but still deep loam and sandy loam soil is suitable for its gardening. Jackfruit plants can be planted in all types of land but from the commercial point of view and of good growth and yield deep fertile loamy land with good drainage is suitable.
Apple farming project for beginners.
Climate requirement for jackfruit cultivation
In a situation where the level of water suddenly increases it is not suitable for cultivation. Jackfruit requires a warm and moist climate behind it the sails are not able to do much. Jackfruit plants can be grown up to an altitude of 1500 m above sea level. There should be good water development in its cultivation.
Apart from this jackfruit is a tropical fruit, so it can be grown in both dry and moist climate. So let us give you complete information about jackfruit cultivation today.
The cultivation of jackfruit is mostly done from seed. Let us tell you that many types of plants are prepared from the same type of seed. Its many major varieties are
- Rudrakshi etc.
Preparation of the field for jackfruit farming:
Its plant gives production for many years so the field should be well prepared. For its cultivation the field should be leveled after doing good plowing once. After this about 10m in the field. At a distance of one meter wide and deep make a pit.
Note that these pits should be prepared 1 month before planting. After about 15 days put manure and fertilizers in the pits and leave the field open. In this way seedlings can be planted after about 15 days.
Planting of jackfruit
The fruits begin to appear after about 5 to 6 years of growing the plant from seed. For this the seeds should be grown in the soil as soon as they are removed from the jackfruit. Generally grafting methods are used to make its seedlings.
Propagation method for Jackfruit
If you are cultivating jackfruit with Grafting method then the plant will start giving fruits after 3 years. In this method the saplings are prepared on the branches of the tree. For this a round ring is made on the branches of the tree.
After this the bark is removed so that the inner part of the branch is visible. Now apply routine hormone on this part and cover it with polythene by applying soil mixed with cow dung.
Jackfruit planting time and method
When the cuttings of the plant are ready they should be planted in the fields. For this mix the compost and soil well in the pits which have been prepared in advance. After this planting the plant in pits and cover them with soil by about 2 to 4 cm. planting seedlings.
For proper plantation of Jackfruit orchard we should plant the trees in the end of month of May. First draw 10 meters at the selected site for planting jackfruit garden. 10 x 10 m Leave the dug of size 1 meter long and meter deep at a distance of 1 meter long and one meter deep for at least 15-20 days after drinking row by row and 10m X 10m also.
After this about 10m x 10m in the field at a distance of one meter wide and deep each make a pit. Note that these pits should be prepared 1 month before planting. After about 15 days put manure and fertilizers in the pits and leave the field open. In this way after about 15 days the seedlings can be planted.
By doing this harmful insects and germs will be destroyed by the strong sunlight of the sun. In the first week of June there should be filled with a mixture of equal quantity of rotten cow dung of field soil and 500 grams of super phosphate, 500 grams of murate of potash. Be sure to put three kilograms of neem cake or Karanj cake in each pit.
The best time for planting saplings is during the rainy season i.e. in the month of July-August-September. The plant should be planted at the beginning of the rainy season.
Jackfruit plants die more in the early stages as they are unable to make up for the damage done to the roots during transfer and planting. Therefore the seeds should be directly harvested. When the plants develop back after germination, the healthy plant should be prepared in polythene and planted.
After planting the plant soil should be well pressed Irrigate after planting. Take regular care after planting. If cracks occur due to cracking of soil at the planting site, these cracks should be closed with light hoeing.
Note that these plants should be planted mostly during the rainy season. Due to this the growth of the plant is good. It is good to plant its plants in the month of June or July.
Intercropping with Jackfruit farming:
After transplanting of Jackfruit garden there is lots of space in between row to row and plant to plant. Before reaching to 5 to 7 year plant we can take crop like vegetable against intercropping between the plants. In vegetable you can take Okra, Brinjal, Tomato, Chilli, or in pulse crop we can grow moong, gram & pulse etc. Before intercropping of plant you first understood the soil characteristics of your garden after soil analysis you can plant and get maximum yield from your garden.
Irrigation of jackfruit plant
Its cultivation does not require much water so if it is the rainy season does not water the plant. If there is no rain, then the plants should be watered according to the need. If there is no rainy season water the plants at an interval of about 15 to 20 days.
Plant field should be kept clean after weeding in its cultivation. If there is a garden of big trees then plough two to three times in a year.
Insect and pest management in Jackfruit plant:
The following are the pests that affecting the jackfruit crop:
Stem and fruit borer
It is a common disease in Jackfruit fruit borer in its primary stage damages soft and young branches. Later it also damages the flower bud and fruit.
For prevention spray Melandhian D15 percent or Metacid 005 percent or Phosphomiton 003 percent solution before the appearance of new branches and flower bud if necessary do second spray after 15 days.
It sucks the sap of tender shoots leaves, flowers and fruits, due to which their color changes and the fruits dry up and fall.
Control: For its management after coating the soil on the main stems on all four sides 45 cm. Wide 400 gauge polythene 30 cm from the ground. Wrap it at the height. Due to which the babies of millibugs are not able to reach the upper branches of the plants from the ground. By making a band of grease around the trunk of the tree in the shape of a ring, the baby insects stick to it and die and are unable to climb the tree.
Moisture rot: The outbreak of this disease is more on jackfruit flowers. Male flowers are particularly affected by this disease. Due to which small fruits start falling.
For its prevention Spray copper oxychloride 0.25% solution at the interval of 20 days from January to March.
This disease affects the stem and branches of the plant. Due to which raised spots of pinkish white color are formed. With the intensity of the disease, the bark of the stem and branches starts cracking and cracks start reading on the stem.
For its prevention lightly scratch the affected area and apply Bordeaux paste and spray Copioxychloride 025% solution.
(Note: Before spraying any chemical in the plant consult to nearest university or college or KVK scientist in your local for convenience and availability in your locality)
Jackfruit has a good price in the market. If more than 150 saplings are planted in one hectare then the yield can be from 3 to 4 lakhs in a year. Jackfruit plant starts giving yield in 3 to 4 years. Its yield varies depending on the variety.