How to do the best Bengal Gram farming?
Black gram or Bengal Gram or Bengal Gram is an important pulse crop grown in Rabi season. India accounts for 70 percent of the world’s total gram production. Bengal Gram contains 21 percent protein, 615 percent carbohydrate and 4.5 percent fat. It contains a good amount of calcium, iron and niacin.
Gram is used for eating in the form of pulses made from its grains and grains. Chickpea husk is used as fodder and as nutritious food for animals. Being a pulse crop, it also increases the fertility of the land by collecting eyes from the environment.
Black gram is a dry and cool climate crop, for which the temperature is good at 23 – 30 degrees.
Nutrients in Bengal Gram:
Bengal Gram is an important pulse crop grown in Rabi season. India accounts for 70 percent of the world’s total gram production. Bengal Gram contains 21 percent protein, 61.5 percent carbohydrate and 4.5 percent fat. It contains a good amount of calcium, iron and niacin. Gram is used for eating in the form of pulses made from its grains and grains. Besan is made by grinding its grains, from which many types of dishes and sweets are made.
In the green stage, gram grains and plants are used as vegetables. Chickpea husk is used as fodder and as nutritious food for animals. Gram is used as a medicine such as to purify the blood and also for other diseases.
Being a leguminous crop gram also increases the fertility of the soil by collecting nitrogen from the atmosphere. The total production of pulses crops grown in the country is about 17.00 million tonnes per annum.
Production of Black gram in India:
The production of gram accounts for about 45 percent of the total production of pulses. Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of gram in the country. Which produces 25.3 percent of the total gram production. It is followed by Andhra Pradesh (154 percent), Rajasthan (9.7 percent), Karnataka (9.6 percent) and Uttar Pradesh (6.4 percent). Average yield of gram (700 kg per hectare) in the state is comparable to that of other states like Andhra Pradesh (1440 kg), Gujarat (970 kg), Karnataka (930 kg) and Maharashtra (870 kg). g) is much less than that.
Apart from other reasons for the low average yield of gram in the state, cultivation by traditional methods is also the main reason. By cultivating gram with improved methods, its average yield can be increased more than double.
Improved varieties of Bengal Gram
The selection of suitable varieties is very important to get more yield from the gram crop. Many Improved varieties of gram have been developed.
BR 77: It is a high yielding variety which has been developed from local strains here. It is a medium maturity variety (135-145 days). Its plants grow semi-upright. Its flowers are pink in color, the size of the seed is medium and the color of the seed is light brown.
BR. 78 This variety matures in a period of 140-145 days. Its seeds are green in color, so it is used in food instead of vegetable. Its seeds are of curvy rough surface and dark green in color.
H. 208 It is a high yielding variety with maturity period of 140- 145 days. The seeds are of medium size. This variety is very suitable and gives good yield even under delayed sowing (November end) condition. It has been found suitable for dry unirrigated areas.
Pant G 114 This variety is more yielding than H. 208. It is a semi erect tall growing variety with pink flowers. It matures in 140-145 days and its seeds are yellowish brown in color.
Ale. 550- It is a variety that matures in 140 days. Its yield is 10 to 13 vintals. Its 100 grains weigh 24 grams. C. 104 This film is ready to ripen in 130-135 days and Gives an average of 10 to 13 quintals/upal. of its 100 grains Weight is 25-30 grams.
In addition to the above varieties, the disciplined varieties for the state of Jharkhand are Pusa-372 256 and Jaki-9218 respectively, which are less than 15 years old.
Climatic requirement for Bengal Gram:
Gram is a dry and mild climate crop which is grown in the female season. Areas with moderate rainfall (60-90 cm annual (rainfall) and century) are most suitable for gram cultivation. Rainfall after flowering in the crop is harmful because the flower pollen grains stick to each other due to years, which prevents seed formation. 24 30 temperature is considered suitable for its cultivation. The temperature less than 30 or more than 30 is harmful at the time of grain formation.
Land preparation for Bengal Gram Farming:
Light loam or loamy soil is good for the cultivation of money. There should be proper drainage system in the land. The soil should not have high alkalinity.
Farm preparation for Gram farming:
First plowing should be done with earth turning plow or disc harrow. After this, the land should be leveled by applying a cross plowing with a harrow. To protect the crop from the infestation of termites and cutworms, 25 kg of Heptachlor (4%) or Quinalphos (1.5%) or Methyl Paradhione (2%) or Endosulfon (15%) powder is applied at the time of last ploughing. The quantity should be given well in the soil at the rate of per hectare.
Seed treatment for Gram Garming:
Many types of pests and diseases cause damage to gram. To save the crop from their infestation, the seeds should be sown only after treatment. While treating the seed, care should be taken that firstly it should be treated with fungicide then with insecticide and finally in Rajobium culture.
For the prevention of humiliation, treat the seed with carbandazim or mancozeb or chiram at the rate of 15-2 grams per seed rate. For the prevention of termites and other underground photo, Kaloropyphos 20 EC Pindosulfon 35 EC 8 ml. Sowing should be done only after treating it at seed rate per kg. In the end the seed should be sown by charging three packets of Rhizobium culture and three packets of phosphorous soluble bacteria by surging the quantity of seed required for one hectare area.
For seed treatment after heating 250 grams of jaggery in one liter of water, after cooling, mix Rhizobium culture and phosphorus soluble bacteria in it and treat the seed. The treated seed should be dried in shade and sown soon.
Gram Sowing time and sowing:
In unirrigated areas sowing of gram should be done in the first fortnight of October. In the areas where irrigation facility is available, wedhai must be done by 30th October. It is very necessary to have proper number of plants per unit in the field to get high yield from crop.
Seed rate required for proper number of plants and row to row and plant to plant distance plays an important role for rainfed cultivation 80 kg. A quantity of 60 kibis per hectare is sufficient for this area. The depth of seed is 7-10 cm for rainfed crops and 57 cm for irrigated area. Should be done in depth. The row to row distance of sowing the crop is 45-50 cm. But it should be done.
Irrigation requirement for Gram Farming:
Generally gram is cultivated in unirrigated condition. B crop requires less water. On the basis of water availability, first irrigation should be done before flowering i.e. 45 days after sowing and second irrigation should be done at seed filling stage after 75 days of sowing. If you do Sprinkler Irrigation / Drip Irrigation method for Gram cultivation it is sure that it will provide you minimum 20% more yield than general farming.
Weeding and weed control for Gram farming:
In gram crop, it is sufficient to cry twice. First weeding should be done after 30-35 days of slip sowing and second after 50-55 days. Immediately after sowing the crop, 250 liters of Pendimyalin should be mixed with 500 liters of water and sprayed evenly in the field by machine. Then one hoeing should be done after 30-35 days of sowing. In this way the damage caused by weeds in the gram crop can be prevented.
There is an outbreak of many types of photos and diseases in the gram crop, which is very important to control at the right time.
Termites and cutworms
If there is an infestation of termites in the standing crop, then chloropyriphos 20 EC. or Indosulfan 35 EC. It should be given with irrigation at the rate of 2-3 liters per hectare. Keep in mind that it is very important for the insecticide to reach the herb for the control of termites.
For the control of cutworms, methylparadion 2 percent or quinalphos 150 percent or endosulfon 4 percent powder should be applied at the rate of 25 kg per hectare in the evening.
For the control of this pest, 20.25 kg of indosulfone 4 percent or quinalphos 1.5 percent or methyl paradion 2 percent powder is applied before flowering and after pod formation. Or the quantity should be sprinkled at the rate of per hectare.
Monocrotophos 35. EC when water is available. Or 1.25 liters of Qunolphos 25 EC should be dissolved in 500 liters of water and sprayed at the time of flowering at the rate of per hectare.
This disease is caused by a post. One kg of a fungicide called Mancozeb is observed when its signs are visible. or a pound of soluble. OR Copper oxychlorite should be sprayed by making a solution of 1.30 kg or in 500 liters of water. 3-4 sprays at an interval of 10 days are sufficient.
On the upper surface of the leaves, light brown and black raised spots are formed on the pods and twigs. On seeing the symptoms of this disease, one dose of fungicide called Mancozeb or one solution of dissolving sulfur or 1.30 kg of copper oxychloride. Or the quantity should be sprayed after making a solution in 50 meters of water. 3-4 sprays at an interval of 10 days are sufficient.
Crop protection from frost
To save the crop from the effect of frost, 0.1 percent amount of sulfuric acid in the crop i.e. one liter of sulfuric acid should be mixed with 1000 liters of water and sprayed. When there is a possibility of frost, the arms of the field and smoke are also notable.
Harvesting and threshing of Gram:
Harvesting should be done when the crop is well ripened. The crop should be harvested when the leaves and pods become wet and brown in color and the leaves start falling and the grains become hard. When the harvested crop is dried properly, the grain should be separated from the straw by the thrasher and dried properly and stored in a safe place.
Yield and economic benefits
For gram farming you will get 28-30 quintal yield per hectare can be obtained by the crop grown using advanced techniques. It costs about 25 thousand to grow the crop in one hectare area of gram. If the market price of gram is Rs 4000 per quintal, then a net profit of about Rs 35-40 thousand per hectare can be obtained.
|Cost economics for Bengal Gram
|Land prepararion times
|Bengal Gram seed 90 Kg/Ha @ Rs. 60/Kg
|Irrigation 5 times
|25 Quinatal per Ha
|Note: This data is just to calculate cost of cultivation taken from different resources. It may varies place to place and variety of seeds.