Organic farming of capsicum
Scientific name: Capsicum annum
Health benefits of capsicum:
Capsicum is a special vegetable by eating which the body gets many benefits. Following are some health benefits of eating capsicum:
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- This fruit is good for your heart.
- The phytonutrient lycopene found in red bell peppers keeps your heart healthy.
- Capsicum improves metabolism.
- Capsicum reduces the risk of cancer.
- Antioxidant properties are found in capsicum.
- Capsicum improves the immune system of the body.
- Eating capsicum gives relief from body pain.
- It also removes iron deficiency.
There are many different colors of capsicum available in the market today like yellow, red, green, or orange, all of which are essentially just green capsicum. Actually these are the same variety of capsicum which has been allowed to ripen. Whereas red capsicum gets fully ripened and takes some long to convert. The capsicum which is harvest first becomes a bit bitter in taste and is easily available in the market at cheap price but its rate decreases.
Capsicum is also called Bell Pepper or Sweet Pepper. It is cultivated in different districts of the country. It does not have pungency, so it is used more as a vegetable and as a fast food. Capsicum is cultivated almost in every season in any state and it is also supplied to other states. Its organic farming is being encouraged all over the country so that it can be exported to other countries as well.
Capsicum contains many nutrients which play an important role in our body for weight loss. Capsicum is rich in vitamins and minerals, as well as high in fiber and water. Foods that provide roughage, vitamins, minerals and salts to the body help a lot in weight loss.
Vitamins that work to digest food well in our body are available in high amounts in capsicum such as vitamin B6. This vitamin is essential for many other metabolic processes. It is helpful in breaking down protein into its components. Helps break down proteins into amino acids, aids in the synthesis of glucose from carbohydrates and helps in the effective digestion of fats.
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Soil & Climatic Requirement for Capsicum:
Capsicum is a Rabi season vegetable, which is planted in the fields in January-February. It is also being cultivated in polyhouses in which cultivation is done successfully in other seasons also. Due to excessive water in the rainy season the plants get damaged and there is a problem of falling of flowers. During fruiting day temperature is 26- 28° and night temperature 16° – 18° C is suitable.
It can be cultivated in many soils sandy loamy soil with pH value of 5.8 to 6.8 is best. If the pH value of soil is less than 5.5 apply lime one month before transplanting.
If you to transplant capsicum seedling into raised bed then plant will get better aeration and water At the end of the result you will get more yield. It necessary to advice you must grow your seedlling in seedling tray. Your seedling must be soilless and trated with trichoderma, jeevamrutha or any other fungicides.
Improved Varieties of capsicum for organic cultivation: Arka Mohini Arka Vasat California Vader, Yellow Wonder
Hybrid Varieties for capsicum: Pusa Deepti, Bharat, Indra, San 1090, Green Gold
Time of Sowing: It is sown in the nursery in August-September and February-March for seeding. Seeds of improved varieties of capsicum required 500 grams per hectare. And 250-300 grams of hybrid variety is required. It is sown in either month of August-September and February-March. It is done in the nursery.
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Nursery making and sowing of capsicum:
To make the nursery the bed is one meter wide 10 cm keep the height and length as required. Plough the bed with a spade remove the weeds and make them friable. Level it by giving Trichoderma, treated cow dung manure, Karanj Khalli and mix it well. Cover the bed by dropping seeds in a row. Give light irrigation from fountain. Seedlings will become fit for planting in 35-40 days. The seed should be treated with jeevamrut before sowing.
Plowing the field and sowing of seedlings:
Plow the soil 2-3 times in the field in which it is to be planted and mix compost or cow dung by giving it rotten manure at the rate of 250 quintal/ha. Also give earthworm manure and neem / karanj cakes so that there is no infestation of termites. In the farm by adding P.S.B. and Azotobacter it increases the amount of phosphorus and nitrogen.
After carefully uprooting the seedlings from the nursery it is planted 45 x 45 cm in the beds made in the field for hybrid it is planted in 60 x 45 cm distance. After sowing of seedlings in the bed it must be watering from the fountain to each one of the plant.
Weeding & Intercultural Operations:
By the removal of the top first and second copal’s of capsicum plants planted in the field leads to increase in the branches and more number of flowers. More harvesting is done when grown in polyhouse. Staking of hybrid varieties of plants is done which gives good fruits.
First weeding is required after 20-25 days of transplanting in the field. After 25 days do second weeding and keep the field free from weeds. Do the last weeding and put soil on the pugs.
Required Irrigation for Capsicum:
Light irrigation must be done after transplanting. After this irrigate with drip every other day. Then apply irrigation every 10 days as needed. By adopting the drip irrigation method the requirement of water is reduced and more area is covered. There should be moisture in the soil while the plants are growing. Otherwise there is a possibility of flower and fruit falling. For better quality product and better growth of plant you need to grow capsicum with drip irrigation. By the use of Drip dydtem either in polyhouse or open field you will get 40% more yield than other method of irrigatin. Less infestation will happen after use of Drip method of cultivation.
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Fruit Harvesting of capsicum:
After 8-10 weeks of transplanting, capsicum fruits become ripe. Harvest the fruits by hand when they reach full size. Then keep plucking every 7-8 days. In improved varieties, 10-12 plucking can be done.
Yield of capsicum:
The yield variety of capsicum depends on season, fertilizer etc. The yield of improved varieties is 250 quintal per hectare and that of sucker varieties is 450-500 quintal/ha. Fruits are obtained.
Pest management for Capsicum:
Fruit borer During summer and rainy days pod borer insect pierces the fruit of capsicum and eats the stems. Neem Insecticides (Infallible Nimbocidin, Amrit Gard, Mengard, Neemol) 2.0 L/ha. Spray. Spray organic insecticides like Heliocil (0.5 ml/L of water). Stem borer/leaf wrapper is applied on the under surface of leaves at the rate of 8-12 cards of Trichogramma per hectare for its management. They destroy the eggs of insects.