How can you get the best Okra production?
Bhindi is a very important vegetable crop. Bhindi is a herbaceous 1-year-old plant. The immature okra fruit is used as a vegetable. The juice extracted from the stem and roots is used to purify the juice of sugarcane and the dried seeds are used like powdered coffee. Adequate amount of nutrients are found in the fruits of lady’s finger. Bhindi also has medicinal properties, such as it’s auspicious for dysentery patients. It is very beneficial in fever and genital diseases.
Some other benefits of Bhendi:
- Bhindi is a very good medicine for jaundice, the use of lady’s finger is very useful in removing jaundice.
- Okra is a very useful vegetable for diabetic patients the powder of okra seeds is very beneficial for diabetic patients. Lower risk of diabetes
- You can prevent yourself from getting cancer by using it in your vegetable; especially okra is very beneficial to remove colon cancer, along with this.
- Bhendi helps to remove the toxic elements present in the stomach.
- In Bhendi the amount of iron is very good which is helpful in the formation of hemoglobin, along with vitamin K and okra also works to stop blood flow.
- There is a lot of fiber in okra vegetable it is very beneficial for the digestive system.
- Eating Bhendi strengthens our bones vitamins K are helpful in making bones strong.
- Along with having vitamin C in it, it is rich in antioxidants due to which it strengthens the immune system and helps the body fight against diseases.
- Bhindi is rich in vitamin A, beta-carotene and antioxidants which are useful in reducing vision.
- Bhendi can be natural uses are also taken as weight loss.
In this article, we will take information about how we can increase production by adopting scientific methods in its cultivation.
Climate: Hot and moist climate is required for production of lady’s finger, its seed germination occurs between 25 to 30 degrees, if the temperature is less than 17 degrees, then the seed does not germinate.
Temperature requirement: If the temperature exceeds 42 degrees, then the flowers fall, the pollination process is not done properly and the fruits do not even produce seeds, so for the cultivation of lady’s finger, we need a humid climate along with summer.
Field preparation: Light loamy soil with good drainage is suitable for okra production as it cannot tolerate water logging. Soil whose Ph is 6 to 6.8 is found to be best for okra production.
If the pH of the soil is less than 6, for its improvement, lime is used at the rate of 3 to 4 quintals per hectare. If the land is sandy or clayey, a good crop can be obtained by using cow dung at the rate of 5 tons per hectare or vermi compost at 3 tons per hectare.
Hybrid variety: Pusa A 4, Parbhani Kranti, Arka Anamika, Pusa Sawani, Perkins Long Green, Ara Abhay, Arka Anamika, Kashi Abhay, Kashi Vibhuti, Kashi Kranti, Sonal and Sarika Azad 1, Azad 2, & Azad 3 you can choose as per your local suitable variety.
When you sow seed? Sowing of seeds is done from February to March for spring crop and from May to August for sowing of rainy crop. In the rainy season, there is a lot of disease called yellow mosaic at the end of lady’s finger.Due to which there is a lot of damage to the crop, this disease can be avoided by sowing the seeds in the first week of May or August.
Germination is low due to low temperature in spring. Get the germination done by inflating the seed overnight in water and keeping the opened seed in a bundle and keeping it inside a heap of fresh dung for two to three days.
Sprouted seeds can be sown after sowing of bloomed seeds. it is necessary to give irrigation due to lack of moisture in soils. Germination will be affected because dry soil absorbs the moisture of the seed. For good germination the seed should be sown for 12 hours in a solution of 12 ppm GA3.
Seed treatment: Treat the seed with theeram or carbendazim at the rate of 2 grams per kg, this can prevent the outbreak of diseases in the early stages.
Seed rate and method of planting: 20 kg per hectare seed should be taken for spring season crop of lady’s finger and 10 kg per hectare seed should be taken for rainy season. For spring crop, the row to row spacing should be 45 cm and the distance between 20 cm should be kept. For rainy crop row to row distance should be 60 cm and seed to seed distance should be 25 cm.
Manure and Fertilizer: According to the fertility of the field, it is economically beneficial to give manure. Therefore, use fertilizer in the field as per requirement basis only.
If the facility of soil testing is not available and the field is of average type, then use rotted cow dung at the rate of 100 quintals per hectare while preparing the field.
In chemical fertilizer: 100 kg urea should be given at the rate of 50 kg phosphorus and 50 kg potash. If the plant looks weak and yellow, then 2% urea solution should be sprayed in the standing crops.
For spring farming, irrigation should be done in 5-7 days and in rainy ladyfinger as per requirement. Drip irrigation is useful in places where there is a shortage of water. Drip irrigation is best method by which farmers can irrigate their fields very easily. Through this system water is made available to the plants in the form of drop by drop. Drip system saves water up to 30 to 40%
The use of plastic mulching in okra crop is very beneficial. Silver black plastic 25 micron spread between the leaves and sowing the seed by making a 2-inch hole at the designated place is good because it increases the temperature of the soil. Mulch is very helpful in weed control, it not only controls weeds but also maintains soil moisture.
The presence of mulch reduces the need for irrigation and also prevents nitrogen evaporation, due to all these reasons, the production of okra increases productive and quality.
Weed control: Weeding operations is required at least 2 to 3 times in okra crop in summer season and and 4 to 5 times in rainy season crop.
Crop protection: The following diseases and insects mainly harm in Okra crop.
Kutara insect: This insect cause’s great damage to the crop in the spring,this insect cuts the growing plants from below.
Due to which the plant dries up to save the crop from this pest, granulated furdan should be applied in the field at the rate of 25 kg per hectare or 10 kg 10 kg by mixing it with chemical fertilizers while doing the last plowing in the field.
Stem borer insect: This insect damages the growing fruits by making holes in the upper part of the stem, which makes holes in the soft part of the stem and the fruit, due to which the fruits become spoiled and crooked.
To protect the crop from this pest, it is useful to spray 0.2 percent solution of Endosulfan on the plants at the time of flowering with an interval of two to three times a week. Do not spray at the time of fruit and spray only after fruit harvesting and do not bear fruit for 1 week.
Aphids: A small brown worm found on the underside of leaves. It sucks the juice of soft leaves, due to which the leaves turn yellow and twist, to save the crop from this pest, the crop can be saved by using furdan in the soil before sowing, apart from this to protect the crop from this pest by issolving 1 ml Roger’s medicine in 1 liter of water, it is beneficial to spray three to four plants at an interval of 10 to 12 days.
Mosaic disease: It is spread out by white fly. So to destroy the fly by mosaic it should be done three to four times at an interval of 10 to 12 days.The sick plants should be carefully uprooted and buried in the pit or burnt away from the field.
Harvesting: The width of the fruit starts after 45 days of sowing of lady’s finger, when the fruit is green, soft and fiberless, then the fruit should be harvested. Harvest should be in every third day.The yield of garam crop is 50 to 70 quintals per hectare and 80 to 100 quintals per hectare for rainy crop.
Economics for the Bhendi Production (LS):
|Economics of Bhendi cultivation under Micro Irrigation (1 Ha)|
|1||Primary tillage operations||Tractor / Rotavator||2||1000||Hrs||2000|
|2||Seed & seedling preparations||Seed Tray + Seed + Vermi Compost + cocopit||1||2500||Set||2500|
|4||FYM / Compost||Composting||5||2500||Trolly||12500|
|6||Conventional Fertilizer||DAP + Urea + Potash||1||2500||Set||2500|
|7||Insecticides, Pesticides & Spraying||1||2500||Set||2500|
|8||Irrigation & Electricity||1||2500||Set||2500|
|Total Variable cost||41800|
|Investment on MIS||112500.00|
|a||Interest on MIS value @ 18%||20250.00|
|b||Depreciation @ 10%||11250.00|
|c||Maintenance @ 5%||5625.00|
|Total Fixed Cost||37125.00|
|Total Cost (A+B)||78925.00|
|Description||Yield (Kg)||Rate (Rs.)||Amount|
|Note: This is a tentative rate considered you can go with actual rate basis.|