High Yield Rajma (Kidney Beans) Farming Information Guide
Botanical Name- Phaselous vulgaris
Rajma is also called kidney beans in English and is famous as one of the most favorite food in North India. Kidney beans are an excellent plant-based source of protein. Many nutrients like vitamins, fiber, antioxidants are found in kidney beans.
Kidney beans are reddish brown in color. Its top layer is thick and it is slightly smooth. These days it is very famous in Indian cuisine. Rajma rice is a favorite among many people.
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The nutrition value against 100 grams of boiled kidney beans is:
- Calories: 127
- Water: 67%
- Protein: 8.7 grams
- Carbohydrates: 22.8 grams
- Sugar: 0.3 grams
- Fiber: 6.4 grams
- Fat: 0.5 grams
Kidney beans are a good source of protein, carbohydrate, carotene, vitamin ‘C’ as well as folic acid. Folic acid is very important to keep our body healthy. The vegetable of soft and soft beans of Rajma is made. Their seeds are dried and used as pulses and vegetables.
Considering the usefulness of Rajma it can be taken as a special food list. Kidney beans are a good source of protein, carbohydrate, carotene, vitamin ‘C’ as well as folic acid. Folic acid is very important to keep our body healthy. The vegetable of soft and soft beans of Rajma is made. Their seeds are dried and used as pulses and vegetables.
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Including Rajma in your diet has the following benefits –
- To control weight: By eating kidney beans, the deficiency of essential nutrients in the body is removed and tell you that calories are found in very less quantity in it, so that if kidney beans are consumed then obesity does not come and the body’s Weight also remains under control. So anyone can use it.
- To Control blood pressure: The nutrients found in kidney beans like potassium, magnesium, protein and fiber help a lot in keeping our body healthy and high blood pressure can be kept by consuming it.
- To prevent Cancer: The elements and anti-oxidants found in kidney beans remove many diseases of our body, as well as deadly diseases like cancer can also be overcome by its consumption. That’s why we must use rajma because the body needs all the elements.
- Make bones strong: Calcium and protein are found in high amounts in kidney beans, which help a lot in making the bones of our body strong. That’s why everyone should consume it. Children must be fed rajma. It makes our body strong and mind sharp.
- Controlling diabetes: Friends, by eating kidney beans, essential elements are found in the body and its consumption is very beneficial for diabetes because there is a lot of fiber and protein found in kidney beans, which is beneficial for diabetes. With its use, the blood sugar level also remains in balance.
- Controlling cholesterol: Anti-oxidants found in kidney beans eliminate the increased cholesterol in our body and cholesterol can be normalized by this. By consuming it, the body remains healthy and there is no disease related to heart as well as blood remains clean.
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Selection of seeds for cultivation of Rajma:
The most important thing in cultivating Rajma is the selection of the species. Among Rajma the varieties of VL Rajma 125, PDR 14, HUR 15, Arka Komal, Kashi Param, Pant Anupama Swarna Priya and Contender shrub are important species. The right time for sowing seeds of these species is (October-November).
Sowing of rajma can be done till the first week of November after which the germination of seeds is delayed and less on sowing. For the cultivation of kidney beans sandy loam or loamy soil is most suitable. There should be no stagnation of water in the field. If there is a lack of moisture in the field then irrigate the field before sowing. After that the field should be prepared by plowing and plowing well.
For cultivating bushy varieties of Rajma 80 kg seed/ha is required. Sowing of seeds in row and row to row distance should be 45 cm and seed to seed distance should be 15 cm. Seeds should be sown at a depth of about 5 cm. Particular attention should be paid to proper depth so that maximum number of plants germinate and production can increase.
After selecting any crop, it is absolutely necessary to use manure and fertilizers in the field as per the requirement.
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For cultivating rajma, it is necessary that in the field where rajma is to be planted, 8-10 tonnes of rotten cow dung must be used per hectare. Rhizobium culpar 200 gram packet is available in the market for Rs.8-10/packet. Make a solution by mixing 200 grams of culture + half a liter of water + 200 grams of jaggery.
Mix this prepared solution well in the seeds so that the seeds are thoroughly purified this quantity is sufficient to treat 8-10 kg of seeds.
After drying the treated seed in the shade sow it in the field. When the field becomes cultivable then after deep plowing, mix the manure in the field and apply 30 kg nitrogen + 80 kg phosphorus and 80 kg potash / ha at the time of sowing, the results are quite good.
Irrigation requirement for kidney beans
Rajma crop is sensitive to soil moisture. Therefore it should be noted that the field don’t get water. Water logging conditions can cause significant damage to the crop. Therefore farmers are requested to do the same irrigation and keeping in mind the moisture content of the soil irrigation should be done at regular intervals.
Drip irrigation can be used for irrigation as per requirement for the cultivation of Rajma. Due to this water enters the root of the plants as per the requirement which can get rid of the situation of water logging. There are many ways to save you by using drip irrigation which can increase your profits.
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Disease in kidney beans:
Like every crop, there is a problem of diseases and insects in Rajma too, if timely treatment and precautions are taken, they can be prevented and diseases can be avoided. Angular leaf spot disease, powdery mildew commonweed mosaic virus and golden mosaic virus are more prevalent in kidney beans.
In angular leaf spot disease, angular brown spots appear on the leaves. When the rainy season prevails, the outbreak of this disease increases. For the control of this disease, seed treatment must be done by mixing 2 grams of a drug called Carbendazim per kg of seed at the time of sowing.
If symptoms of this disease are seen in the standing crop then make a solution of Mancozeb or Caper Oxychloride at 2 grams per liter of water and spray it.
Due to the outbreak of Avencnose disease in kidney beans black spots appear on the stem and pods of the plants. For the control of this disease, spray carbendazim in one gram of solution per liter of water.
In powdery mildew disease, the leaves are covered with white powder. To control this disease, make a solution of 3 grams of Sulphex per liter of water or 2 grams of Karadhen drug per liter of water and spray it twice at an interval of at least 15 days.
Common bean mosaic virus disease is spread by the insect pest. The leaves of diseased plants become irregular in shape and light yellow and green in color.
For the control of this raga, make a solution of Rogar or Metasystax in 2 ml per liter of water and after 25 days of sowing, three sprays should be made at an interval of 10 days.
Golden mosaic virus which is spread by whitefly in that light yellow spots appear on the leaves of the diseased plants and spread to the leaves of the plant. The green pigment in the leaves is partially or completely destroyed.
To control this disease, spray 3 ml of Imidacloprid by dissolving it in 10 liters of water. Further more chemicals requirement you can consult to your nearest KVK scientist or agri university scientist.
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Pest management in kidney beans:
The incidence of insects is less in Rajma as compared to other vegetable crops. Among insects, the most damage is caused by the stem fly.
The caterpillars of this insect penetrate inside the leaves and make a tunnel and damage the plants by reaching the petiole and the body. For the control of this pest, a drug called Endosulfan should be dissolved in 2 ml per liter of water and sprayed.
Harvesting of kidney beans:Harvesting of rajma as per the requirement depends on the purpose for which the rajma is being cultivated. If rajma is cultivated for green beans, then harvesting should always be done in soft and green stage.Harvesting should be done after 120 days of sowing. On late harvesting, the pods become tough and stringy fibers are formed in them.
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If rajma is cultivated for dry grains, then the crop is harvested when the beans are fully ripe, when the pods are in the state of drying and cracking, either by hand or by machine. After that, they rub it. About 80-100 kg of green beans can be obtained from one hectare of farmland.
About 15-20 kg per hectare of dry grain can be produced. From time to time, the use of fertilizer from drip has also been seen in the yield.