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High Yield Litchi Farming Information Guide

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The scientific name of litchi is Litchi chinensis.

It is the only member of the genus Litchi. Its family is soapberry. Litchi is an evergreen tree of medium height, growing to 15–20 m, with alternate pinnate leaves, about 15–25 cm tall are long. The flowers are of small greenish-white or yellowish-white color which is 30 cm long.

Appear on long panicle. Its fruit is 3-4 cm. And its rind of 3 cm diameter is pinkish-reddish to maroon grainy which is inedible and easily removed. Inside it is a sweet milky white pulp rich in vitamin C, somewhat peeled grape C, with a thick layer covering its single, brown, smooth nut-like seed.

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 Basically It is a type of tropical fruit that is native to China. It is commonly found in Madagascar, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, southern Taiwan, northern Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines and South Africa.

Due to its attractive color taste and quality litchi fruits are making a different place not only in India but in the world. India ranks second in the world after China in litchi production. Its export potential has developed immensely over the years.

But due to early spoilage there is more demand for large and similar size and quality fruits in the international market. Finally there is a need for special attention towards production of good quality fruits. By which international currency can be earned.

Litchi cultivation requires a specific climate which is not available at all places. Therefore litchi horticulture is mainly done in India in northern Bihar the valley of Dehradun, the Plane region of Uttar Pradesh and some areas of Jharkhand state.

Apart from this efforts are being made for its successful production in some areas of West Bengal, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. On the basis of quality of litchi, North Bihar has maintained its special place in the production of litchi. Litchi of North Bihar has sweetness and a high quality.Its fruits ripen and are available in different parts of the country from May 10 to the end of July.

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Nutrients in Litchi:

Litchi is considered a good source of water and minerals. Minerals like vitamin C, vitamin B6, niacin, riboflavin, folate, copper, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and manganese are found in litchi, which cools our body and stomach.

The nutrients found in litchi are considered helpful in strengthening immunity by consuming of its fruit. Litchi from Bihar is becoming famous in the country and abroad for its quality. Litchi fruits are full of nutrients and invigorating. Many vitamins are found in abundance in its fruit. The fruit of litchi is also considered useful for patients and families.

Dehydration can be avoided by consuming litchi. A good amount of water is found in litchi which can help to overcome the lack of water in the body. Litchi is rich in vitamin C, beta carotene, niacin, riboflavin and folate which can help in strengthening immunity.

The digestive system can also be kept healthy by eating litchi. It is rich in fiber which can help in improving digestion. The problem of vomiting, diarrhea can also be avoided by its consumption in summer.

Land and climate requirement for litchi

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Deep loamy loam soil with normal pH value is most suitable for litchi cultivation. The soil of North Bihar which has high water holding capacity is considered best for its cultivation. Litchi is also being cultivated successfully in mildly acidic and laterite soils.

Its plants have good growth and fruit production in high water holding capacity and humus-rich soil. Waterlogged areas are not suitable for Litchi fruit. Any type of waterlogged soil is not suitable for litchi.

The temperate climate has been found to be very suitable for the production of litchi. It has been seen that due to clear sky increase in temperature and dry climate in the month of January-February there is a good scene in litchi plant in which more flowers and fruits are produced.

The development of litchi fruits is good in March and April due to less heat as well as normal humidity in the environment in April-May improves the quality and development of pulp in the fruits. A brief description of some of the major varieties is as follows

Important variety for Litchi:

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Shahi, Tricoliya, Azoli, Jhon Desi Rose Cented, De-Rose Ali Bedana, Swarna Rupa China, Eastern Kasya are some of the important varieties of Litchi. Some varieties of information are being shared.

  1. Shahi – This is a commercial and early variety of the country which is becoming popular day by day. The fruits of this film are round and dark red in color, which ripen by 15-30 May. The fruit has a high amount of aromatic pulp, which is the main feature of this variety. Proper water management at the time of fruit development increases the yield. 80-100 or Upan can be obtained per year from 15-20 year old plant of this variety.
  2. China – This is a late maturing straight variety with vines behind. The fruits of this film are large conical and free from the problem of cracking. It is in high demand due to its deep red color and high pulp content. But the problem of alternate function is seen in this film.
  3.  Swarna – Rupa variety has been selected as a result of intensive survey and testing of Horticulture and Agro-Forestry Research Program, Ranchi, which is suitable for the plateau region of Chotanagpur as well as other areas of the country. The fruits of this variety mature in medium time and are free from the problem of cracking. The fruits are attractive and dark pink in color, in which the size of the seed is small, tasty and sweet.

Plant propagation:

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For commercial cultivation of litchi, only the plant prepared by Air layering should be used. Due to lack of parental qualities in seed plants good fruits do not come and fruiting is also delayed in them. To prepare this in the month of May-June choose a healthy and straight branch 40-50 cm from the top of the branch.

Make a 2 cm wide ring in the circle near a knot at the bottom. Applying a paste of 1000 ppm paste cover the honeycomb with moist moss and wrap a piece of white polythene of 400 gauge and tie it tightly with twine.

The roots are fully developed within about 2 months of tying the layering. Therefore at this time about half the leaves of the branch were removed and cut from the main back and planted in a partially shady place in the nursery. There must be hardening required in the shednet for such type of plant.

Planting seedlings

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The full grown litchi tree is big in size. So it is averaged 10 x 10 m should be placed at a distance. Before planting litchi seedlings make sure the place of planting the plant by drawing the field in the garden. After that 90 x 90 x 90 cms in the month of April-May at the spacing place.

Digging pits of the same size keep the top half of the soil on one side and the bottom half of the soil on the other side. In the month of June 2-3 baskets of rotted manure of cow dung 2 kg. 1.0 kg of karaj or neem cake. Bone powder or single super phosphate and 50 g.

Chlorpyrifos, 100 dust / 20 g. Furadan – 3 g / 20 g. After planting the plant, press the soil around it properly and make a bag around the back and pour 2-3 buckets (25-30 liters) of water. Thereafter if there is no rain watering should be continued till the plants are fully established.

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Manures and fertilizers

For the first 2-3 years 30 kg of litchi plants should be given. Decomposed cow dung, 2 kg karanj cake cake, 150 g urea, 150 g single super phosphate and 100 g. Muriate of potash should be given at the rate of one plant per year.

After that along with the growth of the plant the amount of manure should be increased. In this way 5 kg of decomposed cow dung 150 g Karanj, 150 g Urea, 200 g. CSF, 50 g muriate of potash per plant should be increased per year.

After about 15 years, 80-100 kg in a fully grown tree. Dung manure 3-4 kg Karanj cake cake, 2 kg. Urea, 2.5 kg Sisufa and 0.6 kg. Muriate of potash should be given at the rate of one plant per year.

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The quality of fruit and yield of litchi increases with the use of karanj cake and compost. After plucking fruits of litchi new buds come which bear fruit in the next year so for the development of more productive and healthy buds complete and two-third quantity of nitrogen, phosphorous and nitrogen are harvested in June-July and trees Should be given along with pruning.

If there is no rain after applying manure then irrigation is to be done. Applying manure immediately after harvesting litchi fruits improves the development of cones in the plants and the result is good that at the time of fruit development. In acidic soil an increase

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Irrigation & Water Conservation:

If you use micro irrigation to irrigate your litchi garden you will get tremendous result. Finally I can say you that you will get 25-40% more yield as compare to previous year crop of without drip system. You can provide soluble fertilizer with ventury system so thet plant root can accept fertilizer compare ot any othe methods.

In small litchi plants regular irrigation should be done at the time of establishment. For which irrigation should be done at an interval of 5-6 days in winter and 3-4 days in summer.

Water should not be given 3-5 months before flowering (November to February) in full grown plants of Teevi which have started bearing fruit. The fruit development starts rapidly from six weeks before the fruit ripening (beginning of April) in the teacups.

Therefore, in the plants which have started fruiting, proper management and irrigation is required at this time. Lack of water leads to fruit development and cracking of fruits. Therefore, proper water management leads to proper development of the pulp and the problem of fruit cracking is reduced.

In grown plants, constant moisture can be maintained by placing small fountains under the beehive. Water is fully utilized by the plants by irrigating the garden in the evening. Good development of Libi fruits is given by drip irrigation method by giving four grams of water (40-50 liters) daily in the morning and evening.

For the successful production of sauchi, it is very important to have suitable moisture in the soil, for which water conservation by mulching along with irrigation has been found beneficial.

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Plant care and pruning

Proper care for 3-4 years after planting litchi plant needs to be done. Especially in the summer season, effective arrangements should be made to avoid strong hot wind (loo) and frost in winter.

In the first 34 years, unwanted branches of the plants should be removed so that proper development of the main can take place. Thereafter, 3-4 main branches should be allowed to develop in all the directions, due to which the shape of the tree is shapely, the stem is strong and the result is good.

For good yield every year in litchi fruit bearing plants, at the time of fruit harvesting: 15-20 m. By plucking them with dati, good buds emerge in the next year and the yield increases.

In full grown peaches, due to the dense branches, sunlight does not reach the inner part of the plants, due to which outbreaks of many insects and diseases have been seen.

By cutting the gap between the fully grown plants, which are growing directly upwards, the movement of sunlight and light can be increased inside the plants without any damage to the yield.

By doing this, the outbreak of stem borer insects is reduced and the fruit also comes on the inner side of the plants. Dry, diseased or cavy branches should be cut after fruit plucking. Due to proper care, weeding and protection of plants from insects and diseases, the growth of plants is good and the yield increases.

Intercropping with litchi plant:

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It takes about 15-16 years for the litchi tree to mature completely. Therefore, in the initial stage the vacant land between litchi plants can be utilized properly by planting other fruit plants and pulse crops/vegetables.

Due to this, along with additional benefits to the farmer brothers, the soil was improved. Fertility also develops. In the form of intercrops, pulses, oilseeds and other crops like Bodi, French Bean, Okra, Moong, Kulthi, Surguja, Mahua, Paddy etc. can be cultivated successfully.

Flowering and fruiting in Litchi Plant

After four to five years, flowers and fruits start coming in the litchi plants prepared by air layering. It has been seen from experiment that by stopping irrigation in plants about three months before the expected time of flowering the scene is very good.

There are three types of flowers in litchi plants. In litchi, the fruit develops only in bisexual female flowers. In these flowers, the stamens are below the ovary so pollination is needed by insects so for more fruiting female flowers should be properly pollinated and insecticides should not be sprayed at the time of pollination, otherwise the fruit is affected.

Tips for good results and quality

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For good fruit and quality in litchi orchard, special attention should be paid to the following points:

  1. Do not irrigate the plants and do not plant intercropping crops three months before the expected time of arrival. 2. First spray of zinc sulphate (2 g/Litre) solution on the plants 30 days before and after 14 days the second spraying gives good sight and flowers. 3. Do not spray insecticide on plants during flowering
  2. Planorix (2 ml / 48 l.) or NAA one week after fruiting. The fruit drop can be prevented by spraying (20 mg/L).
  3. Three sprays of boric acid (4 g/l) or borax (5 g/l) solution after 15 days of fruit set at 15 days interval reduces fruit drop, increases sweetness. And along with the improvement in the size and color of the fruit, the problem of fruit burst is also reduced.

Problems and solutions in Litchi Plant

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  1. Falling of fruits Due to lack of nitrogen and water in the soil and hot and strong winds, litchi fruits start falling at a young age. Due to proper arrangement of manure and water, there is no problem of fruit drop. Planofix (2 ml / 4.6 l) one week after fruiting. One spray of 20 mg/L solution can prevent fruit drop.
  2. Twig borer (Shoot borer) Its pups enter the soft twigs of new shoots of plants and eat their inner part, due to which the twigs wither and dry up and the growth of plants stops. For its solution, the affected stem should be broken and burnt and two sprays of cypermethrin (1.0 ml / l) or padan (2 g / l) solution at an interval of 7 days at the time of emergence of shoots.
  3. Fruit and seed borer (Fruit and seed borer) If the weather includes good moisture before fruit ripening, then the chances of infestation of fruit borer increases. Its pupus is of the same color as the pulp of litchi, which enters the fruit near the stalk and harms them by eating the fruit, hence the fruits are not edible. Two sprays of Cypermethrin should be done at an interval of 15 days from about 40-45 days before fruit harvesting to prevent its infestation.
  4. Litchi bug is often seen in the months of March-April and July-August on plants. Both its young and adults weaken them by sucking the sap from the soft rhizomes, leaves and fruits. Fruit growth stops. The outbreak of this insect can be detected by a special kind of deodorant when approaching the tree. To prevent this, do two sprays of Metasystax (1.0 ml/L) or Phosphamidan (1.25 ml/L) solution at 10-15 days interval as soon as the newborn insects appear.
  5. Stem borer Sometimes infestation is seen in thick twigs or stems. Large sized pups penetrate the stem and eat its inner part and also expel their venom in it, indicating their presence in the hole. Due to its wrath, either the twigs dry up and become weak. For control, put cotton soaked in petrol or nuwan or formalin in the living holes and close all the holes (with wet soil. Thus, the effect of the vaporized text kills the pups.
  6. Peel Eating Pillu (Bark Eating Caterpillar) These pups are of large size, which make their living by eating the peels of trees and live in hiding. To protect themselves by piercing the stems, they make a web on the twigs with the help of their venom. Their infestation weakens the twigs and can break and fall at any time. Its prevention can also be done by closing the living holes with a clay loam soaked in petrol or nuwan or formalin. Keeping the garden clean has been found to be negligible to prevent these insects.
  7. Fruit bursting: At the time of fruit development, due to lack of moisture in the soil and strong hot winds, fruits burst more. This problem comes in the second stage of fruit development (3rd week of April), which is directly related to the water level and moisture holding capacity of the soil. It has been observed that along with proper management of water, borax (5 g/l) or boric acid (4 g/l) solution is applied to the plants at an interval of 15 days from 15 days after fruit set. By doing 2-3 spraying, the problem of fruit burst is reduced and the yield is good.


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Flowers appear in litchi plants in January-February and fruits are ready for ripening in May-June. The fruits become dark pink after ripening and the small bumps above them become flattened. The yield of litchi plants is low in the initial stage.

But as the size of the plants increases, there is an increase in fruiting and fruiting. Not 80-100 kg fruits can be obtained per tree per year from full grown litchi plants of 15-20 years.

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