High Yield Carrot Farming Information Guide
Carrot is a very important crop of our country. Carrot is cultivated all over the country. In terms of utility, it is an important root vegetable crop. It is used both raw and cooked. It is used for vegetables, salads, pickles and sweets etc. It is rich in carotene and vitamin A. Carrot is mainly grown in Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. It is also grown in other parts India also.
Health Benefits of Eating Carrots –
Carrots are a good source of Vitamin K and Vitamin B6. By eating Carrots regularly, gastric ulcer and digestive disorders are removed. Consuming Carrots helps in strengthening the immunity system by removing the problem of jaundice, as well as increasing eyesight. It is very helpful for the human body.
Its consumption increases amount of blood in a body. Drinking raw Carrot juice removes constipation in the stomach. It is also very useful in the treatment of colon cancer and jaundice. Many nutrients are found in the green leaves of Carrot such as protein, minerals, vitamins etc. Its green leaves are used to make fodder for chickens.
Carrot has a conserving effect but it is acts as a medicines. Like clove and ginger Carrot is able to melt and remove the phlegm in the chest and throat. Some such mineral characteristics are found in Carrots. Which are very helpful in increasing power and preventing diseases.
Raw Carrot contains 88% water, 9% carbohydrate, 0.9% protein, 2.8% dietary fibre, 1% ash and 0.2% fat. Carrot dietary fibre consists mostly of cellulose, with small proportions of hemicellulose, lignin and starch.
Carrot is a type of plant of temperate climate but it grows easily in hot climates also. High temperature during the growth stage leads to a decrease in its colour and taste. Its seeds germinate successfully at 7-28 Celsius temperature. 15°-18°C temperature is best suited for Carrot growth and colour.
Carrot harvest time:
It is ready in 110 to 120 days but it cannot be sown in plains. Cultivating farmers say that by cultivating one hectare, this variety yields up to 200 quintals.
Selection and preparation of land for Carrots
Carrot is best suited for well drained, deep loose, loamy soil. If pebbles and non-rotted manure are available in the soil, then the roots get damaged and branched root system is formed.
Suitable time for sowing Carrot:
Before sowing of Carrot, the soil should be made fine by doing 3-4 ploughings. For its good cultivation 30 cm. deep friable soil is best.
For sowing of Carrot it is necessary to prepare the field in advance. Mix the cow dung manure well in the field. At the time of field groundwork 20 to 25 tonnes of cow dung should be applied per hectare though ploughing. Carrot crop requires 5 to 6 irrigations.
If there is less moisture in the field at the time of sowing, then the first irrigation should be done immediately after sowing. Later irrigation every 15 to 20 days as required gives good yield. The field should be smoothed well before sowing. For this, 2 to 3 deep ploughing should be done. After each ploughing, it is necessary to put on pata so that the soil becomes friable.
Carrot should be dug on time after the crop is ripe or ready. Delayed harvesting of Carrots decreases the nutritional quality of Carrots. Carrot becomes pale and cottony and the weight is also reduced.
Sowing of Carrot depends on its variety. European varieties are sown from March to July, while Asian varieties are sown from August to October. For hilly areas it is sown from March to July.
Seed quantity: 8-10 kg for one hectare area. Seeds are required.
Sowing and Distance
Its sowing in flat beds or else. It is done on the ridges. For this, the row to row distance is 35 to 45 cms. And the plant-to-plant distance is 7 to 10 cm. remains suitable.
Irrigation and Weed Management
Carrots need about an inch of water per week as the Carrot crop matures, but as the roots mature, increase the water to 2 inches per week.
For Carrot crop, irrigation should be done immediately after sowing the seeds. Its seeds take time to germinate. Keep the soil moist until germination occurs. After this, irrigate at an interval of 7 to 15 days. Too much irrigation should not be done, otherwise the growth of vegetation will increase. Therefore irrigation should be done as per requirement.
To control weeds for Carrot cultivation, weeding and hoeing should be done as needed in the crop. If we want to control with weedicide, then making a solution of 3 liters of Pendimethalin in 900 to 1000 liters of water should be sprayed in moist soil for two days of sowing per hectare.
Disease and pest control in Carrot crop:
Carrots are particularly prone to diseases like Fusarium oxysporum, yellow disease, virus blast, root knot worm, wet rot etc. For their prevention, sick Carrot plants should be uprooted and buried in the soil. Before sowing, apply 2 gm Bavistin or Kapton or Carbendazim per kg. rate should be treated.
Along with this, 1.5 to 2 liters of Endosulfan per hectare should be sprayed after making a solution in 700 to 800 liters of water. To control mildew, 0.2 spray of Dithane M 45 or Z 78 should be given. This helps in controlling the Carrot crop from pests and other diseases.
Carrot has the prevalent hemispherical larva, indigo larva and weevil. For their prevention, 10 percent BHC 25 kg. per hectare should be sprayed. With this Malathion 50 EC. Spraying should be done by mixing 1.5 to 2 liters per hectare in 800 to 900 liters of water.
Manures and fertilizers
For Carrot crop, 250 to 300 quintals of cow dung or compost should be applied in the second or third tillage, so that it mixes well in the soil. Along with this 50 kg. Nitrogen, 45 kg. phosphorus and 40 kg. Potash should be given per hectare. Half of Nitrogen and full amount of Phosphorous and Potash should be given in the last ploughing. The remaining amount of nitrogen should be applied half-and-half after sowing the crop, when leaves and roots are developing.
Improved varieties of Carrots
Pusa Yamadagni: This species has been developed by IARI’s Regional Center, Katarine. Its color is saffron and taste is sweet. This crop is ready in 90 to 120 days. Its yield is 150 to 200 quintals per hectare.
Pusa blood: It is long and red in colour. It is sown from September 15 to October and it is ready in December. Its yield is 280 to 300 quintals per hectare. European varieties
Nantis: It is a cylindrical and orange colored soft and sweet Carrot. Tasty to eat and ready in 100 to 120 days. Its yield is 150 to 200 quintals per hectare.
Chandni: It is thick and dark red-orange in colour. It gets ready in 75 to 90 days. Its yield is 150 quintals per hectare.
Pusa Kesar: It is a good red variety. Its leaves are small, roots are long, attractive red color and the center is narrow. Its crop is ready in 90 to 110 days. The yield is 250 to 300 quintals per hectare.
Pusa Meghalaya: It is a variety with orange pulp and high content of carotene. It can be sown in early August to September and late October. It gets ready in 90 to 110 days. The yield is 250 to 300 quintals per hectare.
Digging and harvesting
Carrot roots should be excavated when they are fully developed and its upper diameter is 2.5 to 3.5 cm. Lets do it. There should be enough moisture in the field at the time of digging. Roots should be excavated in February. The roots should be washed thoroughly before selling in the market. Its yield depends on the variety.
Asiatic varieties give higher yields. The yield of Pusa variety is about 200-250 quintal per hectare while the yield of Nantis variety is 150-200 quintal per hectare.