High Yield Farming Bitter gourd Information Guide
Scientific cultivation of Bitter gourd
It is a vegetable that may be bitter in taste but due to its medicinal properties, its demand always remains. In other words, Bitter gourd is not only a vegetable but also a medicinal one. The cost of cultivation of Bitter gourd is low and the profit is high, so small farmers can also do it easily. Some special methods can be adopted to get more profit and keep the cost low, which can be effective for good yield. So today in this article we will know the good cultivation methods of Bitter gourd and understand the process of getting more benefits.
Apart from many medicinal properties in Bitter gourd, vitamins ‘A’ and ‘C’ of minerals, proteins, fats, carbohydrates are also found. Bitter gourd is very beneficial for patients like digestion, diabetes, blood pressure and arthritis, hence medicines are also made from Bitter gourd seeds. Apart from vegetables, pickles and juices are also made from Bitter gourd.
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To get good benefits from the cultivation of Bitter gourd, we also have to understand the utility related to Bitter gourd, which will help us to get more profit from it. Bitter gourd in particular occupies an important place among vegetables due to its special medicinal properties. Its cultivation is done equally in both Kharif and Zaid seasons in India, but in protected condition it can be done throughout the year.
The juice of raw fruits of Bitter gourd is also very useful for diabetic patients and is very beneficial for high blood pressure patients. The bitterness present in it is very useful in cleaning our blood. Presently products like Bitter gourd chips, powder, juice etc. are being made.
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Required climate for Bitter gourd cultivation
Hot and humid geographical areas are best for good production of Bitter gourd, so its crop is successfully grown in both Zayed and Kharif seasons. But in protected condition it can be done throughout the year. The temperature of 30-35 degree centigrade for seed germination and 32-38 degree centigrade is ideal for plant growth.
Land preparation for Bitter gourd cultivation
For the cultivation of Bitter gourd, sandy loam and clayey soil containing organic matter which has high water holding capacity and pH value of 6.0 to 7.0 is suitable for the cultivation of Bitter gourd. Rocky or such land where there is water and there is no good management of drainage is not good for its cultivation.
For the preparation of the field, first plowing is done by soil turning plow and after 2-3 plowing by cultivator. After each plowing, the soil should be made friable and the field leveled by running the pad in the field so that water is not used more or less while irrigating the field. Water should not be allowed to stagnate in the field
Improved varieties of Bitter gourd
Pusa Do Seasonal: This variety is sown in both the seasons (Kharif and Zayed). The tender edible fruits are harvestable about 55 days after seed sowing. Fruits are green, medium thick and 18 cm. m. are long.
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Pusa Special: Its fruits are green, thin, medium sized and edible are delicious. On average, one fruit weighs 115 grams. Its yield is 11.4-13.0 t/ha. it occurs. Arka Harit: The fruits of this species are bright green, attractive, smooth, more pulpy and have thick skin. less seeds in the fruit and Bitterness is also less. Its yield is 13.0 t/ha. it happens.
Manure and Fertilizer for Bitter gourd
50 kg for one hectare of land. Nitrogen, 25-30 kg. phosphorus and 20-30 kg. Gram. Potash should be given as an element at the rate of per hectare. Give one third dose of nitrogen, full amount of phosphorus and potash at the time of field preparation. Half of the remaining nitrogen should be given in the form of top dressing near the root at 30 and 45 days after sowing the seeds.
Land preparation for Bitter gourd
For the preparation of the field, first ploughing should be done with soil turning plow and after 2-3 ploughing with indigenous plow or cultivator. After each plowing, the soil should be fine-grained and the field leveled by running a pat.
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Seed quantity and sowing for Bitter gourd
For sowing of one hectare field 5-6 kg. quantity is required. At one place, 2-3 seeds should be sown at a depth of 3-5 cm.
Sowing time for Bitter gourd
It is sown in summer season from 15 February to 15 March and for rainy season from 15 June to 15 July.
Sowing distance for Bitter gourd
Bitter gourd should be sown as far as possible on bunds or raised beds. Row to row distance is 1.5 to 2.5 meters and plant to plant (plate to plate) distance is 45 to 60 cms. Should keep 50-60 cm at a distance of 2-5 meters in a well prepared field. m. By making a wide drain, sowing is done on both sides of the drains.
Irrigation for Bitter gourd
Depends on soil type and climate. There is no need to irrigate the field in Kharif season, but irrigation is required when there is no rain. It is very important to have drains for the drainage of water during heavy rains. Due to high temperature in summer, irrigation should be done on 4-5 days.
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If you you do Bitter gourd farming with Drip Irrigation then definitely you will use less water and get more production. And further more you you can save fertilizer up to 30 to 60%.
How to control weeds?
After irrigation in the rainy season or summer, a lot of weeds have grown in the field, then they should be removed, otherwise the elements and moisture which should be available to the main crop goes to waste. In Bitter gourd, weeding should be done 2-3 times for the growth and development of the plant.
Bitter gourd staking
By supporting the vines of Bitter gourd, the fruits give good yield if they are kept away from the contact with the ground. Due to this the size and color of the fruits remains good and the yield also increases. Supporting each plant for this gives good results.
Bitter gourd on Plastic Mulch: If you do Bitter gourd on Mulch you will get less infestation from disease and pest. Other than this there would be no issues of weeds on the field problem.
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Major pests and control of Bitter gourd crop
Red worm in Bitter gourd crop (Red Pumpkin bitil): The adult of this insect is bright orange in color and the head, thorax and lower part of the abdomen are black. These insects are most active in the months of January to March. Their infestation remains in the field till October. The seed leaf and 4-5 leaf stage of the crops are most favorable for the attack of these pests. Adult insects especially prefer soft leaves. Due to excessive attack, the plant becomes leafless.
Pest control in Bitter gourd crop: Even after spraying ash at the time of dew in the morning, it does not sit on the adult plant, which reduces the damage. For biological control, two or three sprays at the rate of Azadiractin 300 ppm @ 5-10 ml/L or Azadiractin 5% @ 0.5 ml/L are beneficial.
Major Diseases and Pest Controls
Powdery mildew: The first symptom of the disease is whitish or fuzzy gray appearance on the surface of leaves and stems. After a few days those spots become powdery. The white powdery substance eventually covers the entire plant surface. Which eventually becomes the cause of this disease. Due to this the size of the fruit remains small.
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Control: For its prevention, diseased plants are collected in the field and burnt. Make a solution of fungicide like Tridimorph at 1/2 ml/Lit or Myclobutanil with 1 gm/10Ltr of water and spray at 7 days interval.
Mildew mildew: This disease occurs in both rainy and summer crops. The outbreak of this disease is more in northern India. The main symptoms of this disease are angular spots on the leaves confined to the veins. These are yellow in color on the upper surface of the leaf and there is a growth of hairy mold on the underside.
Control: Seeds should be given 3 gm/kg of a fungicide called Metalaxel. Seed should be sown at the rate of treatment and spray should be made by making a solution of Maconzeb in 0.25 percent water. Spraying should be done immediately after the onset of disease symptoms.
Bitter gourd fruit rot disease
In Bitter gourd affected by this disease, due to excessive growth of fungus on the fruits of Bitter gourd, the fruit starts rotting, the peel of the fruits lying on the surface becomes soft, dark green in color. The disease also spreads in fruits during storage and transportation.
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Control: Proper drainage should be arranged in the field. Efforts should be made to protect the fruits from touching the ground. Avoid injury to fruits during storage and transportation and keep in a ventilated and open place.
Mosaic Virus Disease: This disease manifests as discolouration and shriveling, especially in young leaves. Leaves become small and greenish-yellow. The infected plant begins to decline and its growth stops. The affected plant remains dwarf and does not bear fruit at all.
Control: There are no effective measures to prevent this disease. But it can be greatly reduced by various measures, the diseased plants should be uprooted and watered from the field.You can contact the nearest Krishi Vigyan Kendra or Krishi Vishwavidyalaya for other diseases.
Bitter gourd harvest and yield
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When the color of the fruits starts turning from dark green to light green, it is considered good for harvesting. Harvesting of fruits should be done at a fixed interval so that the fruits are not hard, otherwise their market demand is less. Fruits become ripeable 60-75 days after sowing. This work should be done every third day. The average yield per hectare is about 100-150 quintals or more.