Groundnut (Peanut) Farming Information Guide
In India Gujarat is the major producer of groundnut. After that Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal and other states come in the count. Groundnut is grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons.
Kharif season accounts for more than 75 percent of the total yield. According to the advance estimate of production of oilseeds by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, groundnut production in 2020-21 will be 101.19 lakh tonnes, while its production estimate in 2019-20 was 99.52 lakh tonnes. Traditionally, Gujarat and Rajasthan have a major share in the export of groundnut. It is noteworthy that during 2020-21, India has exported 6.38 lakh tonnes of groundnut worth Rs 5381 crore.
Groundnut is mainly exported to countries like Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, China, Russia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates and Nepal.
According to a scientific research monounsaturated fatty acids are found in peanuts which reduce bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol. It also reduces the risk of heart diseases to a great extent. Physical health experts say that by consuming a handful of peanuts daily you can get rid of many diseases.
- The elements present in peanuts work to give relief in many stomach related problems.
- Eating peanuts gives strength to the body
- Eating peanuts reduces the risk of heart diseases.
- Although peanuts are high in fat and calories, they do not contribute to weight gain.
- Especially when peanuts are soaked overnight, then the fat content starts decreasing from it. If you want, you can also soak it for an hour or two before consumption
Suitable climate for groundnut
The semi-warm climate is more suitable for groundnut. High sunlight and high temperature are favorable for its growth and yield. 25-30°C for good crop yield temperature and 500 to 1000 mm of rainfall have been found to be optimal. Peanut Day is an absolute harvest. Due to which it can be cultivated throughout the year.
Soil requirement for Groundnut Farming:
Groundnut can be grown successfully in light to heavy soils but sandy loam soil with good drainage and rich in calcium and fossils is best suited for groundnut. Lightly acidic soil with pH 6.0 to 6.5 is suitable for groundnut. Groundnut should not be promoted in lands where there is a problem of salinity and saltiness or is more acidic.
The number of tillage of the field depends on the type of soil, crop rotation, moisture content in the soil and equipment used etc. Often the first plowing is done with a soil-reversing plow, followed by 3-4 plowing with cultivator or country plow to make the soil crumbly. To keep the moisture stored in the field, it is necessary to apply paddy after every plowing.
Crop rotation and system
Wheat and pulses are the main crops followed by groundnut in northern India while jowar and sunflower are the main crops of the crop rotation in the southern states of the country. The area is also increasing under paddy-groundnut-ground paddy-groundnut-value and paddy-peanut-millet crop cycles, due to which farmers are getting more productivity and income.
Groundnut Kanus Groundnut-Jowar and Groundnut-Arhar Crop is prevalent in Central India. The area under the betel-groundnut crop rotation is increasing in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uhisa and coastal parts of West Bengal. By cultivating rows of groundnut and sunflower in Zaid, 25-30 percent more yield can be obtained. Similarly, successful and high yield can be obtained by selecting groundnut and tur crops in Kharif.
Intercropping with groundnut
Groundnut + Millet
Peanut + Cotton
Groundnut + Castor
Intercropping cultivation of groundnut + sesame has been found to be more beneficial.
In clustered varieties of groundnut the appropriate amount of seed is 100 to 125 kg per hectare, while in medium and high spreading varieties, 80 to 100 and 60 to 80 kg of seed should be used per hectare respectively. Before sowing the seed should be given 2 or 3 gm Thiram or Carbendazim per kg. Seed treatment should be done by mixing it.
After 5-6 hours of this treatment, treat the seed with a specific type of suitable Rhizobium culture. For treatment, take 1/2 liter of water in a wide tin vessel and mix 50 grams of jaggery in it, boil it lightly and cool it completely.
Then add 200-250 grams of Rhizobium culture to this solution. Sprinkle the mixture of this prepared solution evenly over 10 kg of seed and mix it lightly so that a light layer is formed on the seed. After treatment the seeds should be dried in shade and used for sowing soon.
Groundnut cultivation in Kharif crops
At the time of sowing of Rabi / Zayed groundnut, the surface temperature of 10 cm above the field is 18°c should not be less than In the northern region where groundnut is cultivated in Zayed, this stage comes in February-March. In Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and other states, suitable temperature is available for sowing groundnut of Rabi or Zayed season from November to January.
The appropriate time for sowing the Kharif season crop is the second fortnight of June. In unirrigated areas where sowing is done after rain, sowing should be completed in the first fortnight of July.
There is a difference in the number of plants in the field according to the variety and season. In clustered varieties, row to row distance should be 30 cm and plant to plant distance should be 10 cm. In fruiting varieties, row to row distance is 45 to 60 cm. And the distance from plant to plant should be kept 10-15.
Keep more number of plants per unit area in Ravi Zayed season as compared to Kharif season. Sowing of groundnut by seed dill is useful because row to row and seed to seed distance can be easily established as per recommendation and desired plants number is obtained. If possible, sow groundnut on trees. Sowing the seed at a depth of 4-6 cm gives good germination percentage.
Nutrient Management in Groundnut (Peanuts)
It would be appropriate to use fertilizers on the basis of soil test in any crop. In the absence of soil testing, along with the use of chemical fertilizers, use 5 to 10 tons per hectare of cow dung.
Most of the nitrogen requirement is met through nitrogen fixation. Therefore, it is necessary to inoculate the suitable bacterial fertilizer before sowing the seed. Buy bacterial manure vaccine from reliable places, do seed treatment with bacterial manure 8-10 hours before sowing and dry the treated seeds in shade and use for sowing.
To meet the demand before of nitrogen fixation 20 to 30 kg use nitrogen per hectare. To meet the demand of Phosphorous and Potash use 40-60 kg phosphorus and 30-40 kg use potash per hectare. In addition to the main elements sulfur and calcium have been observed to have a significant effect on the yield and quality of groundnut.
To meet the demand of both these elements, use gypsum at the rate of 200-400 kg per hectare. Mix the full amount of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash and half the quantity of Gypsum in the soil at the time of sowing.
The remaining half of the gypsum is placed at the time of flowering by 5 cm. should be given near the plant at a depth of In rainfed areas 15-20 kg nitrogen, 30-40 kg Phosphorous and 20-25 kg. Put at the rate of potash / ha.
If the growth of plants is low and along with it the number of effective anthers in the roots is less, in that case apply 20-25 kg nitrogen after 30-40 days of sowing to get good yield. By using 15-20 tonnes of lime in acidic soil, the yield of groundnut can be increased tremendously, use zinc and boron in micro elements.
To meet the deficiency of zinc, apply 25 kg zinc sulphate per hectare. Use 2 kg borax per hectare to meet the deficiency of boron.
The infestation of weeds is one of the main reasons for low productivity of groundnut. If weeds are not controlled properly, the yield of the crop decreases by 30-50 percent.
For higher yield, the groundnut field should be kept free from weeds for a period of 25 to 45 days. For this, weeding should be done at least twice, first on 20-25 days and second on 40-45 days.
Before sowing of the crop puluchloralin 1 kg weeds can also be controlled by spraying at the rate of active ingredient and mixing it in the soil. After spraying the chemical one weeding every 30-40 days gives higher yield.
The Kharif season crop is mostly dependent on rainfall. In the areas where irrigation facility is available, irrigation of the crop must be done at the time of flowering, at the time of flowering and at the time of grain formation, if there is a shortage of water. In the Rabi / Zayed season crop of groundnut, the crop should be irrigated at an interval of 10-15 days.
Sowing of the crop should also be done after Palewa. While the lack of water leads to a severe reduction in the yield of crops, due to excessive water stagnation in the field for a long time also causes heavy damage to the crops.
Due to excess water, the roots die and there is a lack of nutrients in the crop. Therefore, where there is a possibility of accumulation of excess water, proper arrangement should be made for the drainage.
Pest and Disease Management
In the crop grown in Kharif, the outbreak of pests and diseases is more in comparison to Rabi and Zayed period due to higher temperature and habit. Insects of groundnut are more prone to white girders and termites.
White Gidar eats the roots of this insect and dries up the whole plant. Gidar is yellowish-white in color with a brownish or reddish-brown head.
These pests come to the surrounding trees after the first rain and come to the fields at the time of laying eggs. The adult of the insect should be destroyed on the trees itself so that they cannot lay eggs in the field. For this, carbaryl 50 wp. 4 g / l. or Monocrotophas 36 W sc 1.5 ml/l. Or spray chloropyriphos 20 EC 15 ml / l.
Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 3-4 hours before sowing. Treat the seed at the rate of 25 ml per kg seed and sow it. In groundnut growing areas where white braid is a problem, apply Phorate 10g 10kg before sowing. Apply in the field at the rate of 30 kg/ha or Carbofuron 3G per hectare, if there is an infestation in the standing crop, 3-4 liters of Chlorpyriphos 20EC chemical should be used per hectare.
Termites – It bites the roots and pods in dry conditions. Roots dry up after cutting. Inside the pod, the soil is filled in place of the kernel. In the case of termite infestation, apply Chlorpyriphos 20EC chemical at the rate of 3-4 liters per hectare.
Among the diseases of groundnut leaf spots, avad kosis, virus and dharcol rot are prominent. Tikka is a major disease in groundnut. Due to this disease, small round shaped brown spots appear on the upper surface of the leaves. In favorable condition the bubbles increase in size and number. When there is more infestation, spots are formed on the flowers and branches also.
Among the diseases of groundnut, leaf spots, gerua vad necrosis, virus and charcoal rot are prominent. Tikka is a major disease in groundnut. Due to this disease, small round shaped discreet spots appear on the upper surface of the leaves.
In favorable condition the spots increase in size and number. In severe infestation, spots also appear on the stem and flower branches. For the prevention of this disease, make 2 percent solution of Dithane M-45 or Kavach and apply 2-3 sprays.
Apart from this, after digging the crop, all its parts should be destroyed. In which the fungus survives for the next year. Better results are obtained by using the resistant or tolerant varieties of leaf stains such as ICGS 37, ICGS 76, M 335, M A 16, DRG 17 etc.
Bud necrosis (virus disease) – This disease is caused by a virus. This disease causes drying of top buds and stunted plant growth. In sick plants, new leaves grow small and grow in clusters. Often the plant remains green till the end. Flowers do not form. Do not sow the crop before the fourth week of June. The virus is transmitted from sick plant to diseased plant by disease carrier (chips) insect.
Charcoal rot disease occurs in the roots due to lack of moisture and high temperature. The roots become rotten and the sap dries up. To prevent this, do seed treatment. Maintain moisture in the field. Adopt long crop rotation.
Harvesting and yield:
In groundnut, when the old leaves turn yellow and fall, the skin of the pod becomes hard, the top layer of the seed inside the pod becomes dark pink or red in color and the seed also becomes hard, then the groundnut should be harvested.
Due to rain on the ripe crop, there is a possibility of seed germination in the beans itself, so harvesting should be done carefully according to time. After harvesting, dry the plants and then separate the pods. After separating the beans, dry again so that the moisture content in them remains 8 percent.
Delay in harvesting has an impact on both the yield and quality of the crop. When the pods remain in the ground for a long time after ripening the incidence of pests and diseases increases which reduces the yield significantly.
If the land is dry before digging, then after irrigating the field, the land becomes soft, which makes it easier to dig, clean the beans thoroughly after digging. If possible, classify the beans according to size so that they can get good prices for the product in the market.
By adopting the above techniques, yield up to 18-20 quintals per hectare can be obtained in the Kharif crop of groundnut and 20-25 quintals per hectare from the Rakhi / Zaid crop.