Green gram (moong) farming guide
Green Gram Scientific Name: Vigna Radiata
Mung or Green Gram has an important place among the popular pulses of India. grains contain 25 percent protein, 60 percent carbohydrate and 1.3 percent fat. In our country the use of in food is considered to be very useful not only for the common people but also for the patients it contains Vitamin C, Riboflavin and thiamine are found in high amounts in sprouted which are useful for our body in many ways. It is also used as green fodder for livestock and as green manure in the fields. Its husk is more nutritious and tasty which animals eat with fervor. Being a short duration crop it is useful pulse crop for intensive cultivation.
Being a pulse glands are found in its roots in which Rhizobium bacteria live, which establish free nitrogen of the atmosphere in the roots. Due to this, 30-40 kg of Nitrogen / ha is established in the land. has an important place among the popular pulses. It is a major source of energy and provides 381 kcal of energy. It not only improves land but can also be used as animal feed. It can be cultivated in both mixed and pure form, it is necessary to pay attention to the following things for its profitable.
Our body has the following benefits by eating mung beans:
- It helps our body to lose weight.
- Sprouted mung is rich in fiber, which helps in the digestion process of our body.
- Increases immunity in the body, which increases the ability of our body to fight diseases.
- Mung reduces the problem of acid in the body.
- Sprouted green gram contains vitamin A which is beneficial for eyesight.
Elements like protein, fiber, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iron, mineral, anti-oxidant, copper, vitamin A, B, vitamin C, vitamin E are found in abundance in sprouted . Little or no amount of fat is found in sprouted . You can also include it in your diet in the form of salad, chaat, which helps you fight against other types of diseases.
Green Gram or Mung is cultivated in very few countries of the world. In India, the crop of is also grown on a large area in some countries of very near Southeast Asia. In India its cultivation is often done on a large scale in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in comparison to other states. In these states, is cultivated both as a mixed single crop.
Climate requirement for Green Gram- crop can be cultivated in all seasons. In northern India, it is grown as a zayed crop in the rainy (kharif) and summer season. In South India it is sown in Rabi. A minimum temperature of 15 Celsius is required for seed germination. 20-40°C (ideal) temperature is required for crop growth and development. For the cultivation of in areas where annual rainfall is up to 60-75 cm. is applicable. Dry weather and high temperature have been found to be more beneficial at the time of pod formation and at the time of crop ripening. It is a short photosensitive plant, whose growth and development requires a light period of 12-13 hours, due to which the flowering stage progresses.
Soil requirement for Green Gram – Deep loamy and alluvial land with good drainage is suitable for the cultivation of . It is cultivated in the red and black soils of South India. But loam to sandy loam land is best for cultivation of . Also, it can be cultivated in heavy soils with good drainage.
Land preparation for Green Gram Farming – Moong can be cultivated in different types of land. High drained soils, loamy soils with a pH of 6-06-5 are more suitable for the cultivation of . Preparation of the land As soon as the monsoon starts, 2-3 ploughings should be done with indigenous plow or cultivator and level the field by running the pada. After harvesting the Rabi crop for the summer crop, they prepare the field by giving Palwa.
Fertilizer requirement for Green Gram – To get maximum yield it is necessary to supply nutrients through manure and fertilizers. After cow dung or compost @ 5 ton per hectare should be given at the time of preparation of the field.To get better yield use 20 kg nitrogeb, 40 kg phosphorous, 20 kg potash and 20 kg sulfur per hectare. This quantity of fertilizers is given to 100 kg D.A.P. Apply 33 kg Murate of Potash and 125 kg Phosphogypsum per hectare. If phosphorus is given in the form of single super phosphate in the field, then sulfur is also available to the crop.
Green Gram Seed treatment – To protect the crop from seed borne and soil borne diseases, the seeds should be treated with Bavistein at the rate of 2 grams per kg before sowing. After this, after at least half an hour, insecticide drug imidacloprod 3 ml or dimethoate 5 ml should be dissolved in 50 ml water, after mixing it well in one kilogram of seed and drying in shade should be done.
By doing this harmful insects present in the soil can be avoided. To prevent termites, one kilogram of seed should be treated with a solution of 6 ml chlorpyriphos liquid in 50 ml water and sown in shade after drying. To prevent micro-parasites, seeds should be treated with insecticide followed by insecticide with micro-pesticides like Trichoderma viridi at the rate of 0.5%. To make it, make a solution of 5% jaggery and heat it and after cooling make a solution by mixing the recommended quantity of the above mentioned parasite, after that, after treating the seeds with the mixture of this solution and soaking it in the shade, there are good effects on the posts.
For organic farming Rhizobium culture of seeds to get good yield of and where there is a shortage of phosphorus in the soil. There PSB Culture should be treated at the rate of 20 g per kg seed. In summer crop seed treatment with Rhizobium culture is necessary as the number of bacteria is very less at this time. To mix Rhizobium culture with seeds, add 50 grams of jaggery in half a liter of water and boil it and let it cool. After the solution cools down, add one packet of Rhizobium culture to this solution and sprinkle this mixture over 10 kg seeds and mix by hand. After this, dry the treated seed in shade for 2-3 hours and sow it. The correct sequence of seed treatment is first fungicide, insecticide, bactericide, then Rhizobium culture and finally PSB culture.
Green Gram or Mung should be selected keeping in mind the climate. Some important seeds of mung are as follows –
- Pusa Vishal – It matures in 60-75 days. Average yield is 12-15 q/h. It is a yellow mosaic resistant variety. Its grains are large and the plant is tall.
- B. M. 4 – This crop period is 60-75 days and yield is 10-15 q. It is a yellow mosaic tolerant variety.
- J. M. 721- It matures in 65-80 days. Gives an average yield of 10-12 q/ha. Yellow mosaic is tolerant.
- Parry – Developed from Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, this variety matures in 90-95 days and gives an average yield of 10-12 Viv ha. This yellow mosaic is tolerant and disease resistant and suitable for sowing in Rabi.
- Pragya – Developed from Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, this variety matures in 90-100 days, yields 9 q/ha.
Seed rate for Green Gram- 12-14 kg of seed should be sown in Kharif season and 14-18 kg per hectare in summer. The seed rate of should be kept at 8 -10 kg per hectare in mixed crop.
Seed treatment for Green Gram – For protection from soil borne diseases, the seeds of mung bean should be treated with Bavistin at the rate of 3 grams per kg. Seed treated with fungicide should also be treated with Rhizobium culture. For rhizobium culture to take 500 ml of water and take 500gram or gud pole in water. Mix 200 grams of Rhizobium culture in this and make a solution. Now mix 10 kg seed in it and keep it dry in shade for 2-3 hours. After this the seeds should be sown.
Green Gram Crop sowing – Rainy season crop should be sown from mid-July to second week of August. Spring crop should be sown in the second fortnight of February or March. The summer crop should be given immediately after harvesting the rabi crop. Late maturing varieties should be sown in Kanhar soil at the onset of monsoon. In summer, sowing of can be done from February-March.
Green Gram Method of sowing – For higher yield of sowing of should be done in huts behind the plow or with seed drill. Kharif crop should be sown in rows at a distance of 30-45 cm and the distance behind the plant is 10-12cm should be kept and the growth of plants is less in summer so keeping distance from row to row even more than 20-30 gives good yield.
Irrigation in Green Gram: Normally, the rainy season crop does not require irrigation. In dry condition, it is necessary to give one irrigation at the time of grain filling in the pods. needs more than 15-30 water in its life time. There should be enough moisture in the soil for germination of summer crop. After this it is necessary to irrigate repeatedly with an interval of 10-12 days. First irrigation should be done before flowering, second irrigation should be done at the time of flower formation (35-40 days after sowing) and third irrigation should be done at the time of seed dies in pods. It is absolutely necessary to have proper drainage system in Kharif crop.
Weed control in Green Gram Farming – One or two weeding is sufficient within 30-45 days of sowing in crop according to the density of weeds. First weeding should be done 20-25 days after sowing and second weeding 45 days after sowing. To control weeds by chemical method, Fluchloralin (Vaseline) 0.75-10 kg. or pendimethylene 1. It should be dissolved in 800-1000 liters of water and mixed well in the soil before sowing.
Mixed Cultivation with Green Gram – Mixed cultivation of is done with crops like maize, jowar, millet, sugarcane etc. When sugarcane (spring) is sown in February-March, due to low temperature the growth of sugarcane is less. Therefore at this time crop can be easily taken along with sugarcane. With the use of improved varieties grown in short duration, additional cost can be earned by growing easily in the vacant land between Rabi and Kharif if irrigation facilities are available. Major crop rotations adopted in northern and central India are maize-potato-mung, maize-wheat deer, paddy-wheat , -maize etc.
Pest management in Green Gram (Mung) –
- Hairy Caterpellar: This insect causes a lot of damage by eating rotten leaves of plants. In order to control it, the plants affected by pests should be collected and destroyed in the initial stage. When the wall is not formed on the coat, then spray Dichlorphos@5ml/10Ltr of water. If it is large and hairy spray endosulfan solution in 2. ml per liter of water and it is beneficial to mix tippal or soap solution in the solution.
- Sucking Insect: This type of insect includes white fly and mahu insect. These insects suck the sap in the tender twigs, leaves and flowers of plants, due to which the plants become weak and dry. To prevent this 50% tyzophos drug should be mixed in ml per liter of water and sprayed at the time of flowering in the crop. To protect against white fly, uproot and destroy diseased yellow plants as soon as they appear in the field and apply Oxymethyl demeton medicine at an interval of 15 days on the crop. Spraying by making a solution per liter of water is beneficial.
- Pod Borer: These insects pierce the fruit and cause damage by eating the seeds inside. For its control 2 ml dose of Endosulfan should be dissolved per liter of water and sprayed. Spraying of Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5% is also beneficial.
Disease management in Green Gram (Mung)
- Yellow Mosaic Virus: It is a viral disease. Yellow and green spots appear on the soft leaves of the diseased plant and eventually the entire leaves turn yellow. Infested plants should be destroyed if symptoms appear in standing crop. Spraying of Methyl Demeton (0.1%) should be done to control white fly which is a vector.
- Cereospora Leaf Spot: Due to this disease small round and brown spots are formed on the leaves. The central part of the spots becomes brown or gray in colour. As a result the leaves get scorched and fall. These spots also appear on branches and pods. If symptoms appear, spray a drug called Endofil M-45 at the rate of 2.5 grams per liter of water. If necessary, second spray can be done at an interval of 10-12 days. We should keep in mind that this disease does not occur after seed treatment with Carbendazim.
- Leaf Crinkle – It is a viral disease which is spread by the whitefly insect. Plants affected by the disease start growing irregularly in shape and the leaves become wrinkled by shrinking and the growth of the plants stops and the pods are very less in the affected plants. For the management of this disease, the affected plants should be uprooted and burnt. On showing symptoms of the disease, oxymethyl demeton or imida chloprid should be sprayed at the rate of 0.1 percent.
(Before use of any chemicals you first consult scientis at local level )
Harvesting of Mung – when the color of the pods starts to turn brown then it should be plucked, in this way it should be plucked twice. Dry the crop well in the sun for 3-4 days in the sun so that the moisture content of the seed should be less than 9% and should be cleaned and stored.
Yield potential for Mung : 10 – 15 quintals per hectare.