Black Gram Farming Information Guide
Scientific name of Black Gram: Vigna Mungo L.
Black gram has an important place in our country among pulse crops. Black gram occupies an important place among the pulse crops taken during Kharif season. Black gram is the third major Kharif pulse in India after gram and tur.
Black gram seeds are mainly used in the form of pulses and dishes like in south as a Bada, Idli, Pakora etc. Its grain contains 23-24 percent protein, 60 percent carbohydrate and 1.3 percent fat. Being a leguminous crop knots are found in its roots which stabilize atmospheric nitrogen which increases the fertility of the soil.
Black gram contains many nutritious elements due to which this lentil is used to treat many diseases like headache, nosebleeds, fever, swelling. Some of the health benefits of eating black gram are as follows –
- There are many nutritious elements like calcium, potassium, iron, fat, zinc in black gram which are beneficial for health.
- Home remedy made from black gram dal is useful in reducing bleeding from the nose.
- Black gram provides relief from joint pain.
- Black gram is beneficial in stomach ulcer disease.
- Eating black gram gives relief in sex related diseases.
- Black gram helps to improves digestion.
- Black gram helps in making the heart healthy.
- Black gram helps in making the skin of the body healthy.
- Black gram maintains the energy level of the body.
Black gram crop is a pulse crop which is about 45 kg Nitrogen is obtained per hectare of land. Black gram is also grown as a protective crop to prevent soil erosion. Black gram is also used as green manure. Apart from India and Pakistan in the continent of Asia Black gram is also cultivated in many parts of Africa, countries located in southern parts of Europe and tropical regions of America.
About 60% of the total production of black gram in India comes from Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Apart from this black gram is also cultivated in the states of Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab, Assam and Rajasthan.
Climate requirement for Black gram – Black gram requires moist and warm climate. 25-30°C temperature is favorable for proper growth of the crop and areas with annual rainfall of 75-90 cm are suitable.
Excess rainfall affects its crop at the time of flowering and most of its varieties are photosensitive and it is absolutely necessary to have a long period of night for flowering in them.
Suitable soil for black gram – Black gram can be grown successfully in all soils with good drainage. It can be cultivated successfully in red loam, light red, cotton black soil and heavy alluvial soils.
Preparation of land for black gram – After the onset of rains in Kharif season after doing light plowing of the field 2-3 times after cleaning the weeds etc., after sowing, the field should be leveled by running a pat.
Sowing of black gram – Sowing of black gram is done in Kharif from the last week of June to the first week of July. The spring season black gram should be sown from February to March and the summer crop should be sown in the second week of April.
Improved varieties – The following varieties of black gram have been found suitable for maximum yield
Pat U-30: The crop period of this variety is 80-85 days and this variety has been found suitable for summer rainy season. Apart from this this variety is resistant to yellow mosaic, powdery mildew. This medium grain variety gives 12-15 q/ha.
Barkha – This variety of black gram matures in 70-75 days. Whose average yield is 12-15 quin/s, is obtained. This variety is suitable for Kharif sowing and its grains are large and shiny but this variety is sensitive to yellow mosaic disease.
K U. 96-3 – This variety is resistant to yellow mosaic disease and matures in 75-80 days. Its average yield is 12-15 q/ha. T.P.U. This variety, which matures in 65-70 days is sensitive to yellow mosaic and gives 8-10 q/ha yield.
Seed rate – For sowing by row method in Kharif, 16-18 kg. And in the spray method, 18-20 kg of seed is sufficient for one hectare. For spring and summer sowing, 15-20 kg seed is required and for mixed crop 5-7 kg seed is required.
Seed treatment – Before sowing treat the seed with Thiram or Bavistin at the rate of 3 grams per seed. Thereafter this treated seed is treated with specific Rhizobium culture disciplined for black gram and P.S. B. An increase in the yield has been found by treating the culture with 5 grams per kg or seed wise.
Method of sowing – Black gram For higher yield it is advisable to sow in rows behind the plow. The distance between rows is 30 cm for Kharif crops and 20-25 cm for spring and summer crops should be kept. The spacing of seeds is 15 cm. Keeping 4 cm should be sown deeply.
In waterlogged fields sowing of black gram on the opposite ridges of 10-12 cm high slope does not have any adverse effect on the crop.
Manures and Fertilizers – Black gram is a pulse crop. Therefore, it does not require many fertilizers. But to get good yield, it is necessary to use fertilizer in balanced quantity. At the time of last plowing of the field mix thoroughly decomposed cow dung or compost at the rate of five tons per hectare.
After this 20 kg nitrogen, 40-50 kg phosphorus, 20-25 kg at the time of sowing the seeds potash and 20 kg Sulfur at the rate of per hectare should be applied in the litter at 5-7 cm depth next to the seed. The right amount of fertilizer should be determined on the basis of soil test.
Irrigation and drainage – Irrigation is often not required in the rainy season black gram crop but in case of excessive rainfall, drainage of water filled in the field is absolutely necessary otherwise the crop starts rotting and many types of diseases etc.
In dry conditions one irrigation at the time of pod formation has been found beneficial. Especially we can get the crop by giving irrigation if we need irrigation at an interval of 10-15 days in spring and summer.
Cropping method with black gram – Black gram is a short duration pulse crop which is beneficial to include in the crop. Maize-potato-black gram (spring), jowar urd paddy-wheat-black gram (summer), tur + black gram-wheat etc crops should be sown in one or two rows of black gram (recommended variety) as end crop. It is also successfully cultivated along with sugarcane.
Pest control in black gram cultivation –
Flea Beetle – Quinolphas 25 BC 1 liter or monocrotophos 36 s. Ale. 750. Spraying of ml should be done on the basis of per hectare.
Mahu: Dimethoate 30 EC 750 ml Or spray Methyl Demetan 25 EC at 625 ml per hectare.
- Chlorpyriphos 1.5% powder at the rate of 20 kg per hectare should be added to the soil at the time of field preparation, especially to prevent termites.
- Foliage spots – Light and dark brown and beige colored spots appear on the leaves. For prevention, zeeneb @ 2 kg per hectare should be dissolved in 600 liters of water and sprayed. Spraying of cuprous drug (3 g / l of water) or hexaclonazole (1 ml / l of water) should be done.
- Yellow Disease – Due to this disease, the edges of the young leaves and the veins of the leaves turn yellow. This disease is spread by white fly. For its control, spraying of 0.1% metacystox should be done 3-4 times. Disease resistant varieties like PDU – 1. TU 94-2 etc. should be used.
- Powdery disease – In this disease, white powdery form appears on the leaves. Due to which the yield is reduced. For its diagnosis, sulphex 3 kg. or calixin 500 ml. Spraying should be done by making a solution in 200-250 liters of water per hectare. Harvesting and threshing The crop of black gram gets ripe in 2-3 months (according to variety).
The crop sown in June-July is harvested in October; the crop sown in February-March is ready in April-May. Harvesting should be done when the pods become black after ripening. Like other leguminous crops, the beans start cracking on drying out.
After uprooting the plants or harvesting it with a laugh, bring the crop to life and dry it. Then threshing is done by beating it with a stick or by driving the bullocks and the straw is separated by blowing it.
Yield and storage – If cultivated with improved method, its yield can be taken 15-20 q from late maturing varieties 10-15 q from early maturing varieties and 6-8 witch / ha yield from mixed crop. At the time of storage the moisture content in the grains is kept 10-12 percent. The grains should be dried thoroughly and stored in a clean place in the godown.