General Description of The Pea (Matar) Crop:
Peas are an important part of our dinner plate today. Peas are grown almost everywhere in our country. Generally it is cultivated only in the cold season. A hotel restaurant or a home dinner table is not complete without presence of peas. Peas are either frozen or dried to make them ready for use throughout the year. Be it Matar Paneer or Tasty Biryani or Palak Paneer or Snacks Matar has earned itself an important place in all the places. In this article, we will try to know about the production technology of peas and how it can be cultivated.
Pea is a major pulse crop grown in winter, whose productivity is higher than other pulse crops. Peas are widely grown in Asia, Russia, USA. It is used in the form of green beans (vegetable) or dried grains (lentils). The total area of peas in our country is about 72 lakh hectares and the annual production is 66 tonnes.
This crop is mainly grown in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and Assam. Vegetable peas are cultivated almost all over India. In cold mountainous regions, this crop is grown as a vegetable from April to November (summer). Uttar Pradesh ranks first in the country in terms of area and production of peas, which contributes 55 and 70 percent respectively. 20-25 degree Celsius temperature is necessary for proper development of pea crop and formation of pods.
Being a crop of cold climate, extreme temperature (heat) is harmful for the crop. Similarly, crops can be affected by frost even in extremely low temperatures, which adversely affects the yield.
|Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Western U.P., Delhi)||Pant Matar 5, Aparna, K P F 103, DMR 7, Uttara, Swati, DDR 27, KPMR 522, HFP 9907B, Pant Matar 42, HFP 9426, Pant Matar 74, IPF 5-19|
|Eastern U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand||Malviya Matar 2, Malviya Matar 15, DDR 23, VL 42, TRCP 8|
|Madhya Pradesh, Chattishgarh, Kota (Rajasthan), Maharashtra||J P 885, KPMR 144-1, Ambika, KPMR 400, IFP – 9925, IFPD 99-13, IFPD 1-10,|
|Uttarakhand, Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh||Malaviya Matar 15, IFPD 1-10, Pant Matar 42, HFP 9426|
Pea or Matar can be grown in all types of soil but its yield has been found to be better in sandy soil. The soil should not be too acidic or too alkaline. It is necessary to have proper drainage system in the field.
The field should be plowed once with soil turning plow and 2-3 times with indigenous plow / cultivator. The field should be level and free from residues of previous crop or weeds.
The suitable time for sowing is from the last week of October to the middle of November. Late sowing increases the chances of pod borer infestation, which adversely affects the productivity of the crop.
It is beneficial to wash the seeds by treating them with suitable fungicide like Carbendazim, Dhiram or Kaptan (25 gm/kia seed). This prevents seed borne diseases. Inoculation of proper Rhizobium culture also helps in the development of buoys in the roots.
Seed Rate and Method of Sowing:
Normally the row to row distance of peas is 30 cm. But for dwarf species this distance should be kept 15-20 cm. Plants of dwarf species are smaller. Therefore, their production capacity per plant is less as compared to tall species. Therefore, production can be increased by increasing the number of plants per unit area. The seed rate should be fixed in such a way that the distance of the plant is kept 5 cm in rows. Hence seed rate of 100-125 kg/ha is sufficient. In case of late sowing, seed rate should be increased by 20-25 percent. Fertilizers and their use
Like other pulse crops, 40 kg of phosphorus is used for root development and bacterial knot formation. It should be given in the form of DAP (Diammonium Phosphate) or Single Super Phosphate at the time of last tillage before sowing.
Although generally the requirement of nitrogen in leguminous crops is less, but in peas, especially in dwarf species, the use of nitrogen at the rate of 30-40 kg / ha has proved suitable for good yield. Application of 30 kg sulfur per hectare is also good which can be given in the form of single super phosphate or gypsum. Along with fertilizers, the use of cow dung has also proved beneficial. 25 kg/ha in zinc deficient soils. Zic sulphate should be given at the time of sowing.
It is necessary to have moisture in the field at the time of tillage, which helps in complete and proper germination of seeds. It is beneficial to do one or two irrigations at the time of flowering and beginning. Irrigation is also required to protect flowers and leaves from frost.
One major thing for Pea that if you do cultivation in Drip you can save 60 to 70% of water. To get bumper yield you need to be cultibvated in raised bed. Here some of the farmers are taking matar in mulching also. Mulching and fertigation system of Pea give us multiplicated yield in the same farm. Although you need to daily irrigation. But at the time of flowering and pod filling you need to irrigate mare time than earlier time period.
Proper spacing in the rows of plants is very helpful in controlling the problem of weeds. One or two weedings are sufficient. First weeding should be done before first irrigation and second weeding after irrigation when oat comes. Spraying of Pendimethylene 0.75-100 kg/ha immediately after sowing but before setting or before sowing (before last tillage) of Basalin (0.75-100 kg/ha) dissolved in 800-1000 liters of water Beneficial for weed control.
Major Diseases and Controls
Wilt, Rust and Powdery Mildew are the major diseases of peas. Developed varieties are generally resistant to powdery mildew, but resistant to Wilt and Rust diseases are almost negligible. Diseases can be prevented by
Powdery Mildew: In this disease, white spots appear on the surface of the leaves, gradually they reach the stems and pods. These spots cover the entire crop in the form of white powder and badly affect the yield of the crop. For disease control, sow on time. Select disease resistant varieties for sowing. As soon as the initial symptoms of the disease are seen, dissolve sulfur-containing fungicide like Sulphex at the rate of 25 kg/ha in 800-1000 liters of water and spray the crop 2-3 times at an interval of 15 days as per requirement.
Rust: The outbreak of this disease is found more in Northeast India especially in Terai and low lying areas. Plant growth stops due to this disease, yellow spots first appear on the leaves and then on the stem. Gradually it turns light brown. for the control of this disease. Follow proper crop rotation. Spray Dithane M-45 @ 2 kg/ha or Hexaconazota 1 liter or Propycona 1 liter in 800-1000 liters of water and spray it 2-3 times.
Wilt: In this disease the plants start getting affected from the early stage, with yellowing in the plants, they start drying up. Its symptoms start from the lower leaves. Often the growth of the roots stops and they rot. in early sown crop its outbreak is more visible. For disease control, sow at the recommended time and adopt proper crop rotation. Seed treatment must be done with fungicide (Bavistin sheerum or Captan 25 gm per kg seed).
Major Pests and Controls
Mahu, leaf eater, pod piercing, munching insects etc. to the crop of peas. The major pests that cause damage are The symptoms and harmful aspects of these pests can be prevented in the following way :
Leaf borer – Due to the attack of this insect on the leaves of the pea, a white garland is formed on the leaves and eventually the growth of the plants stops.
For its control make a solution of Metasystox 20 EC (1 liter) or Dimecan 100 EC (250 ml/ha) in 600-800 liters of water and do 2-3 sprays at an interval of 15-20 days. Apart from this malathion 50 EC or 2 ml in 1 ml per liter of water, pest control can also be done by spraying Ambosulfan 35EC per liter of water.
Pod Piercing: These pests damage the seeds by making holes in the pods. Therefore, its presence is detected by the microscopic holes on the beans. Endosulfan 35 EC (125 liters/ha) should be dissolved in 600-800 liters of water and first spray should be done at the time of grain formation. If required, second spray can be done after 15 days also. Use of early maturing varieties and timely sowing are helpful in avoiding the outbreak of pod borer.
Mahu: This worm sucks the juice from the leaves and soft stems and in turn secretes a large amount of sticky substance, through which the attack of black fungus occurs in these parts. The attack of this insect usually occurs only in January or after. For its prevention, spray the solution of 0.05% Metasystax or 0:07% Endosulfan or 0.05% Rogor once or twice as needed at an interval of 15-20 days as soon as insects appear on the crop.
If the above management is ensured, the crop of peas is usually 100-120 kg. Gives yield of grains per hectare (green beans) and 15-20 kg per hectare. Timely harvesting also saves seeds from spillage.
Proper storage of pulse crops is very important because there is a possibility of damage from insects even in storage. After drying the seeds thoroughly in the sun, they should be kept in insect free storage or by using insecticidal fumigant. Keep in mind that in the storage, there is no air movement.
We have to keep important things to in mind for high production of peas. Select only species resistant to Powdery mildew disease.
- Highly Quality Certified Seeds Reliable Sources
- Before sowing, do seed treatment with fungicide.
Make sure to use Rhizobium culture especially where peas are being grown for the first time.
Sow at the right time.
Ensure adequate moisture in the fields for proper deposition.
- From time to time do weed control and crop protection as required.
Harvest the crop at the right time to avoid spillage.
- Use appropriate radar techniques for seed protection.